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6.1: Solid Waste Management - Biology

6.1: Solid Waste Management - Biology


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CHAPTER HOOK

Flushable wipes, are flushable right? No. Over and over, plumbers and waste water treatment workers state that they do not degrade fast enough and clogs drains and sewers across the globe. Not all flushable wipes are created equal, and some are better than others. Unfortunately, there are no legal requirements these products are required to passed to be called flushable, and the only guiding body is the integrity of the company manufacturing the wipes. If you want advice about your body you go to your doctor. If you want advice about your pipes, talk to your plumber. They will tell you that the only things that should go down your toilet are the 3 P’s, pee, poo, and (toilet) paper.

Figure (PageIndex{a}): Wipe isle at the store. Image by 維基小霸王 in Wikimedia Commons (CC-BY-SA4.0)

  • 6.1.1: Waste Generation
    Trash is a unique human construct because in healthy ecosystems, one organisms waste is always used by another organism. Wastes may be biodegradable or nondegradable. Agriculture, industry, and mining are responsible for most waste generation globally. However, the U.S. generates about 4.9 lbs of municipal solid waste per person.
  • 6.1.2: Waste Disposal
    Open dumps, sanitary landfills, and incinerators are three primary methods of waste disposal. Open dumps increase disease transmission and pollution and are banned in the U.S. Sanitary landfills seal trash to prevent pollution. Incineration can reduce waste volume and generate electricity, but it releases some air pollutants.
  • 6.1.3: Solid Waste and Marine Life
    Ocean dumping or the escape of trash into the ocean can form garbage patches, soups of small plastic pieces trapped in circular ocean currents. Plastic harms marine life by causing choking, poisoning, and damage to internal organs.
  • 6.1.4: Waste Reduction
    The waste management hierarchy lists processes for handling waste in order of preference. Unfortunately, the least preferred process (disposal) is currently used for a large volume of waste. Individuals can limit the impacts of waste through the four R's: are refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle. Additionally, composting at home can reduce food wastes.
  • 6.1.5: Data Dive- "Flushable" Wipes
  • 6.1.6: Review

Abstract

Disposal of solid wastes is a stinging and widespread problem in both urban and rural areas in many developed and developing countries. Municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and disposal is one of the major problems of urban environment in most countries worldwide today. MSW management solutions must be financially sustainable, technically feasible, socially, legally acceptable and environmentally friendly. Solid waste management issue is the biggest challenge to the authorities of both small and large cities’.

Valorization of food organic waste is one of the important current research areas. The conventional landfill, incineration, composting, and ways of handeling solid wastes are common as mature technologies for waste disposal. Traditionally, the most commonly used technologies for the treatment and valorization of the organic fraction of MSW are composting and anaerobic digestion (AD). The generation of organic solid waste (OSW) worldwide is dramatically increasing each year. Most of the OSW’s are composed of agricultural waste, household food waste, human and animal wastes, etc. They are normally handled as animal feed, incinerated or disposed to landfill sites. OAW’s are comprised of materials rich in proteins, minerals, and sugars that could be used in other processes as substrates or raw materials.


Historical background

In ancient cities, wastes were thrown onto unpaved streets and roadways, where they were left to accumulate. It was not until 320 bce in Athens that the first known law forbidding this practice was established. At that time a system for waste removal began to evolve in Greece and in the Greek-dominated cities of the eastern Mediterranean. In ancient Rome, property owners were responsible for cleaning the streets fronting their property. But organized waste collection was associated only with state-sponsored events such as parades. Disposal methods were very crude, involving open pits located just outside the city walls. As populations increased, efforts were made to transport waste farther out from the cities.

After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation began a decline that lasted throughout the Middle Ages. Near the end of the 14th century, scavengers were given the task of carting waste to dumps outside city walls. But this was not the case in smaller towns, where most people still threw waste into the streets. It was not until 1714 that every city in England was required to have an official scavenger. Toward the end of the 18th century in America, municipal collection of garbage was begun in Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia. Waste disposal methods were still very crude, however. Garbage collected in Philadelphia, for example, was simply dumped into the Delaware River downstream from the city.


6.1: Solid Waste Management - Biology

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Municipal Solid Waste Management

Waste treatment in Israel has a long and rich history that is insufficiently known or theorized. This article describes four approaches to solid waste treatment in Israel from the founding of the state up until today: Cleaning, landfilling, composting, and recycling. The approaches are not distinct, developmental ‘stages’ in waste treatment, but rather should be seen as social-material configurations that overlapped and competed with one another in different periods of Israeli history.

Findings were collected through interviews with senior Israeli waste officials and close readings of historical texts, including national waste plans, environmental laws, scientific literature, popular press, protocols of Knesset debates, and publications by government and research institutes. The findings were analyzed using discourse analysis.

The research findings underscore the existence of four distinct approaches to waste treatment throughout Israeli history, that differ from one another in important respects: The materials in the trash that were prioritized for treatment the manner in which trash was framed as a public concern the fields of knowledge that were privileged to characterize the problem and address it and the symbolic meaning accorded to the trash (in the four approaches trash symbolized dirt, a gift, pollution, or a resource, respectively). Additionally, each approach brought about unexpected outcomes that challenged or even directly contradicted its overriding logic. For example, in the present era in which recycling is dominant, trash appears more as a burden demanding significant and ongoing financial cost rather than a ‘resource’ bequeathing win-win economic and environmental benefits.

The cultivation of civic environmental consciousness is a goal that distinguishes contemporary recycling discourse and policy from the past. However, recycling policies today are based on expert models that are inaccessible to most people, and the benefits of recycling are less tangible and obvious to the public than they were to previous generations.


Solid Wastes: Sources and Its Disposal | Environment

Solid waste is commonly known as everything that goes out in trash.

The various sources are:

(i) Municipal solid wastes contain wastes from the homes, offices, schools, hospitals, etc., that are collected and disposed by the municipality. It generally consists of paper, leather, textile, rubber, glass, waste food materials, etc.

(ii) Industrial wastes contain wastes like scraps, fly ash, etc., generated by industries.

(iii) Hospital wastes contain disinfectants and other harmful chemicals generated the hospitals.

(iv) Fly ash from thermal power plants is mainly composed of oxides of iron, silica and aluminium and a low concentration of toxic heavy metals.

(v) Electronic wastes (E-wastes) are the damaged electronic goods and irreparable computers.

(a) E-wastes are buried in landfills or incinerated.

(b) About half of the e-wastes generated in the developed world are exported to developing countries, mainly to China, India and Pakistan, where metals like copper, iron, silicon, nickel and gold are recovered during recycling process.

(c) Recycling of e-waste in developing countries often involves manual participation, thus exposing workers to toxic substances present in e-wastes.

(d) Developed countries have specifically built facilities for the recycling of e-wastes.

Methods of Solid Waste Disposal:

There are various following methods of solid waste disposal:

(i) Open burning involves burning of municipal waste in open dumps to reduce volume but the un-burnt piled waste serves as breeding ground for rats and flies.

(ii) Sanitary landfills are areas, where wastes are dumped in a depression or trench after compaction and covered with dirt. These have been adopted as an alternative to open burning dumps. Seepage of chemicals from these landfills can pollute underground water resources.

(iii) Rag-pickers and kabadiwallas collect and separate out wastes into reusable or recyclable categories.

(iv) Natural breakdown involves dumping biodegradable materials into deep pits for natural degradation.

(v) Recycling of e-wastes can be done in specifically built facilities or can be done manually to recover important metals. Recycling is the only way for managing e-waste, if it is done in an eco-friendly way.

(v) Incineration is a method of e-wastes disposal. Mostly developed countries export their e-wastes to developing countries for incineration.


26 CFR § 1.142(a)(6)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities.

(a) In general. This section defines the term solid waste disposal facility for purposes of section 142(a)(6).

(b) Solid waste disposal facility. The term solid waste disposal facility means a facility to the extent that the facility -

(1) Processes solid waste (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) in a qualified solid waste disposal process (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)

(2) Performs a preliminary function (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section) or

(3) Is functionally related and subordinate (within the meaning of § 1.103-8(a)(3)) to a facility described in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.

(1) In general. Except to the extent excluded under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, for purposes of section 142(a)(6), the term solid waste means garbage, refuse, and other solid material derived from any agricultural, commercial, consumer, governmental, or industrial operation or activity if the material meets the requirements of both paragraph (c)(1)(i) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. For purposes of this section, material is solid if it is solid at ambient temperature and pressure.

(i) Used material or residual material. Material meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) if it is either used material (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A)) of this section or residual material (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B) of this section).

(A) Used material. The term used material means any material that is a product of any agricultural, commercial, consumer, governmental, or industrial operation or activity, or a component of any such product or activity, and that has been used previously. Used material also includes animal waste produced by animals from a biological process.

(B) Residual material. The term residual material means material that meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B). The material must be a residual byproduct or excess raw material that results from or remains after the completion of any agricultural, commercial, consumer, governmental, or industrial production process or activity or from the provision of any service. In the case of multiple processes constituting an integrated manufacturing or industrial process, the material must result from or remain after the completion of such integrated process. As of the issue date of the bonds used to finance the solid waste disposal facility, the material must be reasonably expected to have a fair market value that is lower than the value of all of the products made in that production process or lower than the value of the service that produces such residual material.

(ii) Reasonably expected introduction into a qualified solid waste disposal process. Material meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(ii) if it is reasonably expected by the person who generates, purchases, or otherwise acquires it to be introduced within a reasonable time after such generation, purchase or acquisition into a qualified solid waste disposal process described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Exclusions from solid waste. The following materials do not constitute solid waste:

(i) Virgin material. Except to the extent that virgin material constitutes an input to a final disposal process or residual material, solid waste excludes any virgin material. The term virgin material means material that has not been processed into an agricultural, commercial, consumer, governmental, or industrial product, or a component of any such product. Further, for this purpose, material continues to be virgin material after it has been grown, harvested, mined, or otherwise extracted from its naturally occurring location and cleaned, divided into component elements, modified, or enhanced, as long as further processing is required before it becomes an agricultural, commercial, consumer, or industrial product, or a component of any such product.

(ii) Solids within liquids and liquid waste. Solid waste excludes any solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage or other significant pollutant in water resources, such as silt, dissolved or suspended solids in industrial waste water effluents, dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or other common water pollutants, and liquid or gaseous waste.

(iii) Precious metals. Except to the extent that a precious metal constitutes an input to a final disposal process and/or an unrecoverable trace of the particular precious metal, solid waste excludes gold, silver, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gallium, rhenium, and any other precious metal material as may be identified by the Internal Revenue Service in future public administrative guidance.

(iv) Hazardous material. Solid waste excludes any hazardous material that must be disposed of at a facility that is subject to final permit requirements under subtitle C of title II of the Solid Waste Disposal Act as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (which is October 22, 1986). See section 142(h)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code for the definition of qualified hazardous waste facilities.

(v) Radioactive material. Solid waste excludes any radioactive material subject to regulation under the Nuclear Regulatory Act (10 CFR 1.1 et seq. ), as in effect on the issue date of the bonds.

(d) Qualified solid waste disposal process. The term qualified solid waste disposal process means the processing of solid waste in a final disposal process (as defined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section), an energy conversion process (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section), or a recycling process (as defined in paragraph (d)(3) of this section). Absent an express restriction to the contrary in this section, a qualified solid waste disposal process may employ any biological, engineering, industrial, or technological method.

(1) Final disposal process. The term final disposal process means the placement of solid waste in a landfill (including, for this purpose, the spreading of solid waste over land in an environmentally compliant and safe manner with no intent to remove such solid waste), the incineration of solid waste without capturing any useful energy, or the containment of solid waste with a reasonable expectation as of the date of issue of the bonds that the containment will continue indefinitely and that the solid waste has no current or future beneficial use.

(2) Energy conversion process. The term energy conversion process means a thermal, chemical, or other process that is applied to solid waste to create and capture synthesis gas, heat, hot water, steam, or other useful energy. The energy conversion process begins at the point of the first application of such process. The energy conversion process ends at the point at which the useful energy is first created, captured, or incorporated into the form of synthesis gas, heat, hot water, or other useful energy and before any transfer or distribution of such synthesis gas, heat, hot water or other useful energy, regardless of whether such synthesis gas, heat, hot water, or other useful energy constitutes a first useful product within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section.

(i) In general. The term recycling process means reconstituting, transforming, or otherwise processing solid waste into a useful product. The recycling process begins at the point of the first application of a process to reconstitute or transform the solid waste into a useful product, such as decontamination, melting, re-pulping, shredding, or other processing of the solid waste to accomplish this purpose. The recycling process ends at the point of completion of production of the first useful product from the solid waste.

(ii) Refurbishment, repair, or similar activities. The term recycling process does not include refurbishment, repair, or similar activities. The term refurbishment means the breakdown and reassembly of a product if such activity is done on a product-by-product basis and if the finished product contains more than 30 percent of its original materials or components.

(e) First useful product. The term first useful product means the first product produced from the processing of solid waste in a solid waste disposal process that is useful for consumption in agricultural, consumer, commercial, governmental, or industrial operation or activity and that could be sold for such use, whether or not actually sold. A useful product includes both a product useful to an individual consumer as an ultimate end-use consumer product and a product useful to an industrial user as a material or input for processing in some stage of a manufacturing or production process to produce a different end-use consumer product. The determination of whether a useful product has been produced may take into account operational constraints that affect the point in production when a useful product reasonably can be extracted or isolated and sold independently. For this purpose, the costs of extracting, isolating, storing, and transporting the product to a market may only be taken into account as operational constraints if the product is not to be used as part of an integrated manufacturing or industrial process in the same location as that in which the product is produced.

(f) Preliminary function. A preliminary function is a function to collect, separate, sort, store, treat, process, disassemble, or handle solid waste that is preliminary to and directly related to a qualified solid waste disposal process.

(1) In general. If a facility is used for both a qualified solid waste disposal function (including a qualified solid waste disposal process or a preliminary function) and a nonqualified function (a mixed-use facility), then the costs of the facility allocable to the qualified solid waste disposal function are determined using any reasonable method, based on all the facts and circumstances. See § 1.103-8(a)(1) for allocation rules on amounts properly allocable to an exempt facility. Facilities qualify as functionally related and subordinate to a qualified solid waste disposal function only to the extent that they are functionally related and subordinate to the portion of the mixed-use facility that is used for one or more qualified solid waste disposal functions (including a qualified solid waste disposal process or a preliminary function).

(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section, for each facility (or a portion of a mixed-use facility) performing a qualified solid waste disposal process or a preliminary function, the percentage of the costs of the property used for such process that are allocable to a qualified solid waste disposal process or a preliminary function cannot exceed the average annual percentage of solid waste processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or that preliminary function while the issue is outstanding. The annual percentage of solid waste processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function for any year is the percentage, by weight or volume, of the total materials processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function that constitute solid waste for that year.

(ii) Special rule for mixed-input processes if at least 65 percent of the materials processed are solid waste -

(A) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, for each facility (or a portion of a mixed-use facility) performing a qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function, if the annual percentage of solid waste processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function for each year that the issue is outstanding (beginning with the date such facility is placed in service within the meaning of § 1.150-2(c)) equals at least 65 percent of the materials processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function, then all of the costs of the property used for such process are treated as allocable to a qualified solid waste disposal process. The annual percentage of solid waste processed in such qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function for any year is the percentage, by weight or volume, of the total materials processed in that qualified solid waste disposal process or preliminary function that constitute solid waste for that year.

(B) Special rule for extraordinary events. In the case of an extraordinary event that is beyond the control of the operator of a solid waste disposal facility (such as a natural disaster, strike, major utility disruption, or governmental intervention) and that causes a solid waste disposal facility to be unable to meet the 65 percent test under paragraph (g)(2)(ii)(A) of this section for a particular year, the percentage of solid waste processed for that year equals -

(1) The sum of the amount of solid waste processed in the solid waste disposal facility for the year affected by the extraordinary event and the amount of solid waste processed in the solid waste disposal facility during the following two years in excess of the amount required to meet the general 65 percent threshold for the facility during each of such two years divided by

(2) The total materials processed in the solid waste disposal facility during the year affected by the extraordinary event. If the resulting measure of solid waste processed for the year affected by the extraordinary event equals at least 65 percent, then the facility is treated as meeting the requirements of the 65 percent test under paragraph (g)(2)(ii)(A) of this section for such year.

(iii) Facilities functionally related and subordinate to mixed-input facilities. Except to the extent that facilities are functionally related and subordinate to a mixed-input facility that meets the 65 percent test under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section, facilities qualify as functionally related and subordinate to a mixed-input facility only to the extent that they are functionally related and subordinate to the qualified portion of the mixed-input facility that is used for one or more qualified solid waste disposal functions (including a qualified solid waste disposal process or a preliminary function).

(h) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this section:

(ii) The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 8 , except that Company H is able reasonably to extract the cleaned paper pulp from the process without degradation of the pulp and to sell the cleaned paper pulp at its dock for a price that exceeds its costs of extracting the pulp from the process. Therefore, the paper pulp is the first useful product within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section. As a result, the portion of Company H's facility that processes the discarded magazines is a qualified solid waste disposal facility, and the portion of Company H's facility that produces industrial-sized rolls of paper is not a qualified solid waste disposal facility. If, however, the only reasonable way Company H could sell the pulp was to transport the pulp to a distant market, then the costs of storing and transporting the pulp to the market may be taken into account in determining whether the pulp is the first useful product.

(ii) The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 9, except that the stripped bark represents only 55 percent by weight and volume of the materials that are transported by the conveyor belt. The remaining 45 percent of the materials transported by the conveyor belt are not solid waste and these other materials are sorted from the conveyor belt by a sorting machine immediately before the stripped bark arrives at the storage bin. Fifty-five percent of the costs of the conveyor belt and the sorting machine are allocable to solid waste disposal functions.

(i) Effective/Applicability Dates -

(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (i), this section applies to bonds to which section 142 applies that are sold on or after October 18, 2011.

(2) Elective retroactive application. Issuers may apply this section, in whole, but not in part, to outstanding bonds to which section 142 applies and which were sold before October 18, 2011.

(3) Certain refunding bonds. An issuer need not apply this section to bonds that are issued in a current refunding to refund bonds to which this section does not apply if the weighted average maturity of the refunding bonds is no longer than the remaining weighted average maturity of the refunded bonds.


Characterization and management of solid medical wastes in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria

Background: Medical establishment such as hospitals and research institutes generate sizable amount of hazardous waste. Health care workers, patients are at risk of acquiring infection from sharps and contamination of environment with multiple drug resistant microorganisms if wastes are not properly managed.

Objectives: To characterize types and evaluate waste disposal techniques employed in the management of solid medical wastes in five selected hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.

Methods: This was a cross section study involving the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, meetings, discussions and participant observed strategy. It also involved the collection, sorting (segregation), identification and characterization and weighing of waste types from wards and units in the selected hospitals.

Results: The average waste generation rate per bed/day was determined and found to be 2.78 kg of solid waste, 26.5% of the total waste was hazardous in nature. Waste segregation was found not to be practiced by any of the hospitals surveyed, 18.3% of the hospitals incinerated waste in a locally built brick incinerator 9.1% bury 36.3% burn waste in open pits while 36.3% dispose of a waste into municipal dumpsites.

Conclusion: Waste management officers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and hospital administrators pay very little attention to appropriate management of medical waste. Therefore, we must educate waste generators of their responsibility to properly manage the waste so that their staff, patients, environment and community is protected.


Policy

The three components of this policy are designed to save resources, reduce solid waste, and improve markets for recycled products. Active participation of all University constituents is crucial if the Illinois State University Recycling Programs are to be successful.

  1. Recycling - The University is committed to campus wide recycling collection and supports the development and implementation of such for all campus units.
  2. Waste Reduction - The University considers volume reduction as a number one priority of the Solid Waste Management Plan. All campus constituents must reduce the volume of their solid waste stream.
  3. Procurement of Recycled Products - The University will not discriminate against, and preference must be given to, products made with recycled material content whenever cost, specifications, standards, and availability are comparable.

Specific procedures for the development and implementation of programs regarding recycling, waste reduction, and procurement of recycled products can be found from Facilities Services.

Initiating body: Facilities Management

Contact: University Recycling, 309-438-SAVE (7283)

Illinois State University
Campus Box 1000
Normal, IL 61790-1000
(309) 438-5677
Contact Us


Watch the video: Introduction To Waste. Waste Management 2020. Environmental Science. LetsTute (June 2022).


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