What leads to the different types of navels?

What leads to the different types of navels?

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Obviously, there are "innies" and "outies" in the human belly button world. Both are the result of a knot tied in the umbilical cord just after birth.

But why do some belly buttons become outies while others become innies? Is it related to how the doctor ties the knot, or is it related to how the knot heals?

After childbirth, the umbilical cord is either tied (similar to a tourniquet - the cord itself is not tied into a knot) or clamped to cut off the blood supply. It is then cut distal to the clamp/tie, separating the child from the rest of the cord and the attached placenta. The remaining cells die and dessicate, and the stump eventually falls off, forming the umbilicus or belly button. The default result, barring any issues, is an "innie". However, an "outie" may form if the child was born with a tiny umbilical hernia, or there was a small unnoticed infection at the base of the umbilical cord. Either of these could lead to the formation granulation tissue, described colloquially as an "outie". People can also have combination navels, with the indentation of an "innie" but a small amount of protruding granulation tissue inside.


Cross-pollination is defined as the transfer of pollens from one flower to another of a different plant. Some examples of plants that exhibit this phenomenon are cucurbits, blueberries, cherry trees and apple trees.

Cross-pollination is defined as the transfer of pollens from one flower to another of a different plant. Some examples of plants that exhibit this phenomenon are cucurbits, blueberries, cherry trees and apple trees.

Amongst sexually reproducing plants or flowering plants, pollination is the key process for fertilization. It is defined as the transfer of pollens from the anther to stigma, either in the same plant or to a different plant. When pollens are delivered to the same flower or different flower of the similar plant, it is known as self pollination or autogamy. Contrary to this, a flower is pollinated by pollens of a different plant’s flower in cross-pollination. As ovum and spermatozoa come from different plants, it is also referred to as allogamy.

What is Cross-Pollination?

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Most of us are well acquainted with cross-pollination definition, which states it as, the transfer of pollens from the male reproductive organ (stamen bearing anther) to the female reproductive part (pistil bearing stigma), of a different plant. In the phenomenon, the pollens containing male gametes or sperms are deposited in the receptive part of a flower, from which they are channeled to the female gamete or ovule. In gymnosperms, pollens are directly deposited in the micropyle of the ovule whereas, pollens are collected by the stigma in angiosperms.

In cross-pollination, the pollinating agents play a crucial role in carrying out fertilization. Hence, for it to take place, there should be prospective agents, which may be biotic pollinators (e.g. insects, birds) or abiotic factors (e.g. wind, water). The biotic pollination contributes to more than 80 percent of fertilization cases. An adaptation in cross-pollinated plants is bearing of stamens that are taller than the ovule bearing structures called pistils. Usually, the flowers have colorful petals and strong fragrance to attract cross pollinating agent.


The major benefit of cross-pollination is giving rise to offspring that are genetically different from the parent plants. Thus, plant hybrids with desirable characters are produced as a result of it. In nature, it increases the survival rate of plants. In plant breeding experiments, flowers of various plant species are cross-pollinated manually. All you need is a collection of the pollens at a specific time and place them into stigma of another plant of the same species.

Cucurbits: At times, cross-pollination takes place between two related species, though they are not identical to each other. An example is pollination between zucchini and acorn squash, both of which belong to the Cucurbitaceae family. In short, plants classified under the same botanical species can be cross-pollinated successfully.

Blueberries: Cross-pollination of fruit trees is studied in detail, as it indirectly affects the fruit production. In case of blueberries, bumble bees and other bee types, pollinate the flowers. For production of larger berries and also to ensure good yield, grow different cultivars of blueberries. Nevertheless, while selecting the varieties, make sure that they are compatible to each other.

Cherry Trees: Sweet cherry cultivars are cross-pollinated species, while sour varieties undergo self pollination. This is the main reason why, fruits cultivators often grow many cherry trees (that bloom at the same time) in proximity to each other. For planting in your orchard, choose compatible cherry species by consulting your local horticulturist.

Apple Trees: Another example of cross-pollination in fruits trees is apple. For a flower to produce apple fruit, it has to be fertilized by pollen of another flower from a different apple plant. In this process, honey bees land on the apple flower, collect nectar and pollens, and then visit another flower. Thus, the pollens are carried to another flower of a different tree, resulting in cross-pollination.

The end result is fertilization, which is followed by formation of seeds in the ovule. This is the main difference concerning pollination vs. fertilization. A major concern in agriculture and horticulture industries is loss of biotic pollinators in the last few decades. This pollinator decline leads to reduced rate of cross-pollination of flowers. Consequently, fertilization is affected negatively, which in turn causes decrease in fruit yield and crop production. The probable reasons for loss of pollinators are application of pesticides, insecticides, and habitat destruction.

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Effect of Some Navels on Properties of Cotton/Nylon66 Blend (1 : 1) Rotor Spun Yarn and Wrapper Formation: A Comparison between Rotor and Ring Spun Yarn

Use of nylon/cotton blend yarn in military uniform is common and due to advantages in its fabric in comparison to 100% cotton fabrics, capabilities of military uniforms have been improved. In this study the effects of navel type on properties of (50%-50%) nylon/cotton blend yarn and wrapper formation were investigated and compared with similar ring spun yarn. Rotor spun yarn was produced on a single head laboratory rotor spinning machine with four navels (smooth, spiral, 3 grooved, and 4 grooved) and ring yarn was produced on a zinser 319 ring spinning machine. Test result showed that navel type has a significant effect on yarn strength and strength of smooth navel yarn was maximum. Elongation of a 100% cotton rotor spun yarn is more than similar ring yarn, but it was not observed in cotton/nylon blend. Yarn irregularity and imperfections varied significantly with navel type and for rotor yarns were more than the ring yarn. Navel type had significant effect on yarn hairiness but it didnot have an effect on yarn abrasion significantly.

1. Introduction

The use of blended yarn has increased significantly these days. Blending is used as a means of substituting a less expensive fiber for a highly priced one and to produce yarns with qualities that cannot be obtained by using one type of material alone.

El-sheikh [1] reported that the properties of blended yarns depend on their constituent fibers and also showed that blended yarn’s tenacity decreases as the percentage of high tenacity fiber is increased. Kemp and Owen [2] investigated the stress/strain characteristics and cotton fiber breakage for a series of nylon/cotton blended yarns at strain above the breaking strain of all cotton and also studied the strength and mechanical behavior of nylon/cotton blended yarn and they found that a dependence exists between the behavior of the two fiber types. Gibson et al. [3] worked on military uniform and reported that nylon/cotton blend is used as an outer shell in different version of military chemical protective uniforms. And some researchers [4–6] worked on battle dress uniforms (BDU) and found that nylon/cotton blend is more suitable than those of any other blends. Kong et al. [7] reported that by adding 2–4% elastan yarn (lycra) through the nylon/cotton fabrics, the ability of extension of these kinds of fabrics can be increased up to 50% and it is appropriate for military uniforms. Javadiyan et al. [8] worked on seven different nylon/cotton blend ratios and reported that by increasing the nylon fiber blend ratio, the yarn elongation, abrasion resistance, tensile work of rupture, and hairiness significantly increase, whereas yarn tensile modulus decrease.

Navels differ in their material, forms, number of grooves, existence of fluted inserts, length of ceramic parts, and grooves [9]. Smooth navels often give better yarn characteristics the yarn is more resistant to rubbing and has good heat conductivity and generally less false twist grooved navels can operate at lower twist levels the running performance is better because of the greater false twist effect but hairiness does increase ceramic navels with 4–6 grooves have proved advantageous in the spinning of blended yarns and fibers that are not strongly sensitive to heat [10]. The configuration of the navel has quite a considerable effect on both spinning stability and yarn appearance [11]. Nawaz et al. [12] reported that the effect of draw-off navel type and yarn count was highly significant while for yarn evenness, the effect of yarn count and rotor diameter was highly significant, whereas the effect of draw-off navel was at par. Erbil et al. [13] worked on the effect of navel type on hairiness of rotor-spun blend yarn and reported that the form and structure of navel have an important effect on hairiness, except the number of notches.

The work reported here is concerned about the evaluation of the quality and mechanical properties of five different nylon/cotton blends of yarn that are particularly used in military uniforms, apparel and textile industry.

2. Materials and Method

Nylon66 and Cotton have been used in the present investigation (Table 1). Cotton and nylon66 fibers in carded sliver were prepared. The carded sliver in the same proportion passed through two stages of drawing processes and created 4.5 Ktex nylon/cotton blend sliver and then the blended sliver feed to flyer frame for making 528 tex roving. Finally, draw sliver and roving were produced on a RU04 rotor spinning (Shubert & Salzer) with four different navels (smooth, spiral, 3 grooved, and 4 grooved) and Zinser 319 Ring spun machine respectively, to produce yarn of 20 Ne (29.5 tex).

Spindle speed, nominal count, and twist were 6700 rpm, 20 Ne, and 637 T.P.M, respectively. Also the speed of rotor, opening roller, take-up roller, and feed roller was 49300 rpm, 9200 rpm, 71.3 m/min, and 0.48 m/min, respectively.

The codings of the four different rotor spun yarns and ring spun yarn (witness yarn) are listed in Table 2.

All the samples were tested for the following: tensile strength, evenness, hairiness, and abrasion resistance.

2.1. Tensile Strength

Yarn tensile properties (tenacity, breaking elongation, and work of rupture) were determined on a SDL tensile tester with a jaw speed of 1 m/min and a test length of 50 mm, and 30 tests were conducted for each yarn.

2.2. Evenness

The irregularity and yarn imperfection (thick, thin, nep, and CV%) were measured by using a Keisokki uster over a length of 1000 m of yarn speed at 25 m/min and 5 tests were conducted for each yarn. The degree of sensitivity of the thinness, thickness, and neps was −50%, +50% and +280% respectively.

2.3. Hairiness and Abrasion Resistance

A SDL hair tester was used to determine the hairiness with a testing speed of 20 m/min and a test length of 30 m for 5 samples (totally 150 m) only hairs with a length greater than or equal to 3 mm were measured. The yarn abrasion resistance was measured by using a SDL yarn abrasion tester. A abradant (P1200) was used and 30 tests were conducted for each yarn sample. All tests were conducted under the standard laboratory conditions (

2.4. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Wrapper formation of the samples was observed by scanning electron microscopy (VEGA TESCAN, Czech Republic). Samples were fixed in SEM holders and coated with a thin layer of gold prior to SEM investigation.

2.5. Analysis of Data

The data was analyzed statistically by using CRD (complete random design) method for the interpretation of data. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test were provided at α value of 0.05%. All statistical analysis steps were performed on SPSS software.

Table 3 shows test results for the properties of yarn quality. A summary of ANOVA statistical results is tabulated in Tables 4, 5, and 6. As shown in these tables, the effect of navel type on yarn physical properties is almost statistically significant.

  • P wave: the sequential activation (depolarization) of the right and left atria
  • QRS complex: right and left ventricular depolarization (normally the ventricles are activated simultaneously)
  • ST-T wave: ventricular repolarization
  • U wave: origin for this wave is not clear - but probably represents "afterdepolarizations" in the ventricles
  • PR interval: time interval from onset of atrial depolarization (P wave) to onset of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex)
  • QRS duration: duration of ventricular muscle depolarization
  • QT interval: duration of ventricular depolarization and repolarization
  • RR interval: duration of ventricular cardiac cycle (an indicator of ventricular rate)
  • PP interval: duration of atrial cycle (an indicator of atrial rate)

It is important to remember that the 12-lead ECG provides spatial information about the heart's electrical activity in 3 approximately orthogonal directions:

Each of the 12 leads represents a particular orientation in space, as indicated below (RA = right arm LA = left arm, LL = left foot):

Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and Random Mating

Non-Random Mating and Population Structure

Non-random mating leads to departures from Hardy–Weinberg proportions. For example, inbreeding and positive assortative mating (where individuals prefer to mate with phenotypically similar individuals) yield an excess of homozygotes. By contrast, negative assortative mating (where opposites attract and individuals prefer to mate with phenotypically different individuals) results in excess of heterozygotes. Population structure also causes departures from Hardy–Weinberg proportions. For example, consider what happens when samples are drawn from multiple populations instead of a single randomly mating population. If these samples are pooled together and there are allele frequency differences between source populations the resulting mixture will have an excess of homozygotes. This reduction in heterozygosity is known as the Wahlund effect ( Wahlund, 1928 ). In practice, departures from Hardy–Weinberg proportions due to non-random mating and population structure tend to be genome-wide (i.e., their effects can be seen at multiple loci).

Cellular respiration is the process by which the living organism’s cells extract the energy stored in the chemical bonds of food molecules , especially sugars ( glucose ) that are manufactured by the plants or eaten by animals , then this energy is stored in the f orm of ATP molecules to be use d in performing the different activities .

The cellular respiration s tarts by the oxidation of glucose molecule , The glucose molecule is considered as an excellent example to study the steps of breaking down the food molecules , as it is used commonly by the majority of living organisms to produce energy more than any other molecules of available food , Most stages of oxidation process of glucose molecule occur inside the mitochondria .

Glucose ( as well as other carbohydrates ) is considered as a form of stored energy , also it is a form by which the energy transfers from one cell to another and from one living organism to another .

Structure of ATP

In order to understand how ATP performs its function , we have to study its structure , The molecule is built up of three sub-units which are :

  1. Adenine : a nitrogenous base ( it has the properties of a base ) .
  2. Ribose : a 5-carbon pentose sugar .
  3. Phosphate group : each molecule of ATP has three phosphate groups linked together by bonds .

ATP molecules are considered as the universal currency of energy in the cell , as any energy required by a cell needs ATP which changes into ADP ( adenosine diphosphate ) , an amount of energy ( which is about 7-12 kcal/mole ) is released .

Anaerobic respiration

Aerobic cellular respiration

It is the principal route for obtaining the energy in the majority of living organisms in the presence of oxygen , The oxidation of one mole of glucose produces energy of 38ATP , this can be illustrated by the following equation .

C2H12O6 + 6 O26 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP

The oxidation of glucose molecule takes place in three major stages :

  1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosole of cell .
  2. Krebs cycle occurs inside the mitochondria .
  3. Electron transport chain occurs inside the mitochondria , as it the mitochondria contain the respiratory enzymes , water , co-enzymes , phosphate groups , Electron carries molecules or Cytochromes t hat carry the electrons at different energy levels , where the hydrogen atoms are removed from the carbon skeleton of glucose molecule to be passed to the co-enzymes which act as the hydrogen carries ( as NAD + and FAD ) .

The most important co-enzymes are :

NAD + which is reduced into NADH

NAD + + H2NSDH + H +

FAD which is reduced into FADH2



Glycolysis occurs in the cytosole ( non-organelle part cytoplasm ) of the cell , It takes place in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to produce energy , where the stages of glucose b reakdown occur in the absence ( or lack ) of oxygen , so , these reactions are called anaerobic respiration .

The glycolysis of glucose occurs as the following : One molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid ( 3-carbon ) through a group of reactions .

  1. Glucose is converted into glucose 6-phosphate .
  2. Glucose 6-phosphate is converted into fructose 6-phosphate , then fructose 1,6-diphosphate which forms two molecules of PGAL ( phosphoglyceraldehyde ) to be oxidized into two pyruvic molecules .

These reactions are accompanied by ( for each molecule of glucose ) :

Reduction of two molecules of the co-enzymes NAD +


Production of two molecules of ATP in the cytosole of the cell .

The equation of reaction :

C2H12O62 C3H4O3 + 2 ATP ( Anaerobic respiration , respiratory enzymes )

The energy produced :

Two molecules of ATP which are not enough to perform all the vital activities in the living organisms , Therefore , in the presence of oxygen , the pyruvic acid passes into the mitochondria to produce more energy , this takes place in two stages which are Krebs cycle and Electron transport chain .

The importance of glycolysis : The production of two molecules of ATP , The obtaining of pyruvic acid which is used in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration .

Krebs cycle

The first scientist who described this cycle was Sir Hans Krebs in 1937 , He won Noble prize in 1953 , It occurs inside the mitochondria , Before the entrance into Krebs cycle , the following reaction occurs :

Each molecule of pyruvic acid is oxidized in the presence of co-enzyme A into acetyl co-A and produces : 2 molecules of NADH , 2 molecules of CO2 .

Th e acetyl groups resulting from the breaking down of fat molecules or protein molecules can combine with the co-A to join Krebs cycle .

Krebs cycle takes place in many stages , which are :
  1. Each molecule of acetyl co-A joins Krebs cycle , where its co-A splits off to repeat its role .
  2. The acetyl group ( 2C ) combines with a 4-carbon compound ( oxaloacetic acid ) , to form a 6-carbon compound ( citric acid ) .
  3. The citric acid passes through three intermediate compounds , It starts by the ketoglutaric acid ( 5C ) , then succinic acid ( 4C ) , then malic acid ( 4C ) and at the end of reactions the citric acid is formed again , therefore Krebs cycle is called the citric acid cycle .

During one cycle , all these compounds are produced :

  1. Two molecules of CO2 .
  2. Three molecules of NADH .
  3. One molecules of FADH2 .
  4. One molecule of ATP .

Krebs cycle is repeated twice ( one for each molecule of acetyl group ) , Krebs cycle does not need oxygen , because all the electrons and protons are removed during the oxidation of carbon atoms and received by NAD + and FAD molecules .

The importance of Krebs cycle :

The oxidation of carbon atoms through a group of reactions by removing the electrons through the intermediate compounds which are received by the co-enzymes ( NAD + and FAD ) and then these co-enzymes transfer them to the cytochromes to release the energy and form ATP molecules .

Electron transport chain

The terminal stage of aerobic respiration that starts at the end of Krebs cycle , It occurs inside the mitochondria , Electron transport chain occurs in many stages as the following :

Hydrogen and high-energy electrons carried by NAD + and FAD are transported over certain sequences of co-enzymes called cytochromes ( electron carriers ) that are present inside the inner membrane of mitochondria .

Cytochromes are sequences of co-enzymes present in the inner membrane of mitochondria that carry the electrons at different energy levels , The cytochromes carry the electrons at different energy levels , These high-energy electrons are passed from one molecule of cytochrome to another , during that the energy is released to form ATP from ADP and a phosphate group , This process is called oxidative phosphorylation .

Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which ATP is formed from ADP and a phosphate group by using the energy released during the passage of electrons ( that are carried on cytochromes ) from a high-energy level to a low-energy level .

Two electrons combine with 2H + and one oxygen atom to form a water molecule , So , oxygen is considered as the last receptor in the electron transport chain .

2é + 2H + + ½ O2H2O

Each NADH molecule produces three molecules of ATP , while each FADH2 molecule produces two molecules of ATP .

The importance of electron transport chain : Releasing the energy stored in NADH and FADH2 through the passage of electrons over a sequence of cytochromes and using produced energy to form ATP from ADP .

Calculation of ATP

In aerobic respiration , each molecule of glucose produces 38ATP :

Two molecules in the cytoplasm of cell ( produced during the glycolysis ) , 36 molecules in the mitochondria ( during the respiration stage ) .

Anaerobic cellular respiration

Anaerobic respiration ( Fermentation ) is a process by which the living organism obtains energy from the food molecule ( glucose ) in the absence or lack of oxygen by the help of special enzymes and this produces a small quantity of energy ( 2ATP molecules ) .

Stages of anaerobic respiration ( fermentation ) .
  1. Glucose is decomposed into two molecules of pyruvic acid with the production of two molecules of NADH , Two molecules of ATP .
  2. Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol according to the type of cell in which it was formed and this is called fermentation .

Types of fermentation

Types of fermentation are Acidic fermentation and Alcoholic fermentation

Acidic fermentation

As in animal muscular cells and bacteria , In the muscle fibers , when the muscles exert vigorous efforts or exercises , they consume most of the oxygen in their cells and tend to convert the pyruvic acid into lactic acid through its r eduction by its combing with the electrons on NADH , This is known as a muscular fatigue .

C6H12O62 C3H6O3 + 2 ATP ( Acidic fermentation )

If oxygen is available , lactic acid is converted into pyruvic acid again , and then into acetyl co-A , In case of bacteria , the pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid in the absence of oxygen and many of dairy industries depend on this type of fermentation as cheese , butter and yogurt industries .

Alcoholic fermentation

In yeast and some plant cells : Pyruvic acid is reduced into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide , This is used in the industry of some products .

C6H12O62C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2 ATP ( Alcoholic fermentation )

Seeds of angiosperms have the power to respire anaerobically , if they are kept under the anaerobic conditions .

Pattern Formation

During morphogenesis, a process called pattern formation drives the spatial organization of tissues and organs into a defined body plan, or final shape. For example, both dogs and humans have legs made up of bone, muscle, and skin. During development, differentiation produces muscle cells, bone cells, and skin cells from an unspecialized set of embryo cells. Morphogenesis then organizes the bone cells into bone tissue to form bones and the muscle cells into muscle tissue to form muscles. However, it is the process of pattern formation that organizes those bones and muscles into the specific spatial organization that makes a dog look like a dog and a human look like a human.

The Role of Positional Cues in Pattern Formation. During pattern formation, it is crucial for cells of the developing embryo to communicate with one another so that each cell will "know" its relative position within the emerging body plan. The intercellular molecular signals that ultimately drive the process of pattern formation provide positional information. These signals may be chemicals released by certain embryonic cells that diffuse through the embryo and bind to other cells. These diffusible signals are called morphogens. Oftentimes it is the concentration of the morphogen the target cell senses that provides information about the target cell's proximity to the releasing cell.

The development of a chicken wing is a good example of this phenomenon. During development, the chick wing develops from a structure called the limb bud. Lewis Wolpert discovered a small collection of cells that lie along the rear margin of the limb bud and that specify the position of cells along the front-rear axis of the bud. Ultimately, these cells control the pattern of digit development in the wing (chicken digits are like human fingers). Wolpert named these cells the polarizing region. They release a morphogen that diffuses through the limb bud. The cells that are exposed to the highest concentration of morphogen (the ones closest to the polarizing region) develop into a particular digit, the cells that are exposed to an intermediate concentration of morphogen develop into a differently shaped digit, etc. Ultimately the positional cue directs differentiation of the target cell by changing its pattern of gene expression.

The Role of Hox Genes in Pattern Formation. The basic three-dimensional layout of an organism is established early in embryonic development. Even an early embryo body has dorsal and ventral axes (top and bottom) as well as anterior and posterior axes (front and back). The differential expression of certain genes in different cells of the embryo controls the emergence of this organization. Interestingly, while different types of organisms have dramatically different morphological features, a similar family of genes controls differential gene expression during pattern formation. The Hox family of genes (also called homeotic genes) is found in many different organisms (including plants and animals), and is important in controlling the anatomical identity of different parts of a body along its anterior/posterior axis. Many species have genes that include a nearly identical DNA sequence, called the homeobox region. These genes comprise the Hox family of genes, and they encode proteins that function as transcription factors. In fruit flies, for example, homeotic genes specify the types of appendages that develop on each body segment. The homeotic genes antennal and leg development by regulating the expression of a variety of other genes. The importance of the Hox genes is vividly evident when one of these genes is mutated: the wrong body part forms. For example, mutation in the Antennapedia gene causes fruit flies to develop legs in place of antennae on the head segment.

Types of Followers

Most leaders love their stars - those who take initiative and do what needs to be done without being told.  But the true test of leadership lies in developing direct reports who need more guidance and hands on supervision. 

Gaining a better understanding of those you lead can help you be a more effective leader.

Although the alienated follower is independent and thinks critically, they are passive.  Their passivity distances them from the leader and their team members.    

Because they are passive, they do not use their strengths to help the team achieve its goals.  They have something of valude to offer but choose not to do so.

Of the five types, this type of follower tends to be the most disruptive.  They may offer passive resistance when they do not agree with a decision or course of direction, but often will not offer their input.

When dealing with this type of follower, I recommend that you ask for their input.  In doing so, the leader conveys that they value the person and what s/he has to say.


Sheep are passive AND dependent. As such, they do not think critically and tend to do as they are told, rarely putting forth an opposing opinion.

They leave the thinking to their leader.

These attributes serve neither them nor their fellow teammates.

Because they require constant supervision and prodding, this type of follower negatively affects team dynamics and performance.

As the leader, addressing this behavior head on in a positive way could turn things around.  This may be the perfect time to give some performance feedback .

Yes People/Conformist

Yes People are active, but they are dependent AND do not think critically. Because they are conformist, they will agree with the leader without question. Their major concern isਊvoiding conflict.

As such, these types of followers pose a danger to the leader and themselves due to their unwillingness and inability to put forth challenging viewpoints, which could produce a better outcome.


Survivors are chameleonic.  They go with the flow, following the path of least resistance. 

They are most interested in playing it safe rather than taking a risk.  Their greatest fear?  The򠿪r of making a mistake. 


Proactive, independent and able to think critically, effective followers are also respectful of the leader’s authority.

Effective followers are life-long learners.   They practice self-leadership , take responsibility, are committed and seek feedback to continuously improve their performance.

Also known as “dynamic followers” they are very valuable to leaders and the team.

Because of their consistent and high quality contributions, this type of follower is often a trusted advisor to leaders who lead.

Different Types Of Attraction

Sexual attraction is only one of the many different types out there. When you&rsquore attracted to someone sexually, you may or may not be attracted to them in other ways and you can be attracted to people when no sexual attraction is present.

Alongside sexual attraction is romantic attraction, physical attraction, emotional attraction and aesthetic attraction. Each is entirely different, and though you may feel each of them for one person, you may feel them each for someone different.

They're also not entirely up to you.

Something in your body or your mind (or both) tells you how you feel about someone and though that feeling or type of attraction may change as you get to know them better, there's always going to be some level of intrinsic feeling in your mind.

Sexual Attraction

This is the one that we hear about the most, and it's the one that most people think of as soon as they hear the word 'attraction.' It's about looking at someone and feeling something toward them in a sexual way.

We think this about our sexual partner and hopefully the one that we choose to spend our lives with as well. But you may also feel sexual attraction to other people around you. It is a desire toward sexual touching and activity with another person. The level of strength of those feelings and their occurrence, however, could vary from person to person. It can also grow or fade over time and change in different circumstances.

Asexuals are people who don&rsquot experience sexual attraction, though many experience romantic attraction, which we&rsquoll talk about next. If you don&rsquot experience sexual attraction &ndash or even romantic attraction &ndash it doesn&rsquot mean that there&rsquos anything wrong with you. However, it does mean that you may need to navigate relationships more carefully than others, as most people do experience attraction in these ways and they often expect it in return.

Romantic Attraction is entirely separate from sexual attraction though you may feel them for the same person.

This type of attraction is where you want to be in a relationship with the person. You may want to be with them without necessarily wanting the sexual aspect of the relationship. This isn't the same as friendship, however, and the feelings will be stronger than the attraction you would feel toward a friend (we'll get to that later).

In this type of attraction, you want to be romantically involved with the individual, but sex is not required. Now that we&rsquove talked about sexual and romantic attraction, it may be easier to understand how they are different.

Think of celebrities that you may have a &ldquocrush&rdquo on. You may be sexually attracted to them &ndash you may watch films or television appearances that they make, or purchase magazines with their images. But, you probably don&rsquot think about dating them, getting married, having kids, etc., because you probably aren&rsquot romantically attracted to them.

As was the case with sexual attraction, some people don&rsquot experience romantic attraction. These people are called &ldquoAromantic.&rdquo While they will still have social needs that can be satisfied through platonic relationships, they may not feel the need to date, get married, etc.

Just like we said in the case of asexuals, people who don&rsquot get romantically attracted to another person aren&rsquot broken or deficient, but they may have trouble navigating relationships with people who do experience these feelings.

Physical Attraction

Also called sensual attraction, this is a desire to be around others, to be physically cared for and treated with love and affection. It can occur with romantic relationships, but it doesn't have to. Think about all of the people that you touch in non-sexual and non-romantic ways &ndash friends, parents, children, siblings.

When we are children, we have a level of physical attraction to our parents who hug and cuddle us. As we grow older, we may develop these types of relationships with our friends. These are attractions and desires for physical contact but those types of contact that are non-sexual.

You may feel a desire for your friend to hug you when you've had a bad day, for example, this is an example of physical attraction.

Asexual and even aromantic people can experience this form of attraction. However, because they don&rsquot experience it along with other attraction behaviors that we may expect of them &ndash because we may experience these things ourselves &ndash this can be confusing.

The important thing is to communicate with the other person &ndash no matter who they are and what your relationship to them is to establish consent before touching them in ways that could be misconstrued, and to ask them about their feelings before jumping to conclusions.

To feel an emotional attraction is to want to be emotionally present with another person. When you want to share with them the things that you are feeling you feel an emotional attraction. You may have this with friends, family or romantic partners - or you may have some level of it with all three.

Having healthy emotional attachments and feeling as though you can share your feelings with others is extremely important and it makes for a healthier lifestyle. You should have several people that you feel you can share your emotions and feelings with.

Aesthetic Attraction

Finally, this type of attraction is what happens when you see someone walking down the street and think that they look good.

Many of us look at celebrities this way and think that they are cute, hot, gorgeous, etc. This type of attraction is not the same as physical attraction or sexual attraction because you may feel no desire to touch or be touched by the person that you find aesthetically pleasing. You simply notice the way that they look much in the way you might notice when someone has a nice car or when there is a sculpture in front of a building.

It doesn't mean that there can't be a physical or sexual attraction at the same time, but there is not necessarily.

Overall, each of the different types of attraction is important in our lives. They occur with different people, and they tend to ebb and flow throughout our lives. The type of person we have a sexual attraction to at 19 or 20 may not be the same type of person that we do at 40 or 50. The person we have an aesthetic attraction to definitely won't be. But that's part of how we grow and develop.

Intellectual Attraction

You may have heard the term &ldquoIntellectual attraction&rdquo before as well. This kind of attraction isn&rsquot quite in the same ballpark as the other kinds of attraction that we&rsquove talked about, but that doesn&rsquot mean that it isn&rsquot worth discussing.

Intellectual attraction refers to the desire to interact with people on a more cerebral level. You may want to spend time with them because of the topics that you discuss, or because someone makes you think about things in new and challenging ways.

Some people find that they need to feel intellectually attracted to someone in order to feel emotionally attracted or even romantically attracted to them, but that isn&rsquot the case for everybody. Different people in different relationships can fill different roles and needs in our lives.

Because of its strictly non-physical nature, many people consider intellectual attraction to be an aspect of emotional attraction.

Getting Help

If you have trouble forming attachments or don't feel any of these types of attraction to anyone, you may want to seek out professional help. As mentioned above, not feeling some forms of attraction for others isn&rsquot necessarily a bad thing, though it may mean that you have to navigate relationships in a different way &ndash and that may require some guidance.

Sexual attraction is not present in everyone but having an emotional attraction or physical attraction is something that helps us to grow in healthy and positive ways. It means having someone that can be there for you to support your feelings and to comfort you, which are two extremely important parts of your life.

BetterHelp is one place that you can find out more about different types of attraction and how they are occurring in your life. With this online service, you get to connect with professionals from all over the country to find out more about what you're going through and about yourself.

You'll be able to talk with someone anywhere you want, and from anywhere you want, which makes it convenient. No more going downtown to the psychiatrist's office, you can instead just log on to your computer from your favorite room in the house and your most comfortable spot and just like that you're ready to go and ready to get help.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

There are different types of attraction, although only sexual attraction is frequently spoken of. Other types of attraction include physical attraction, which is based on desirable physical features. The emotional attraction type is usually on the basis of how connected you are with the other person's soul- the intellect and mind. Sexual attraction, on the other hand, occurs when you have sexual feelings for someone. Aesthetic attraction is for the physical attributes and not because you want any sexual relations. Finally, romantic attraction is somewhat like sexual attraction, but the twist is that it is usually based on the want for a romantic relationship.

The stages of attraction have been described, to begin with, physical attraction, intellectual attraction to obsession, confirmation, and then love or commitment.

The physical attraction occurs after the first or initial meeting. You may begin to notice certain features and impressions are made. As conversations continue, there might be an attraction to the intellect. After these stages, obsession would set in, which involves the desire to spend more time with your love interest. Confirmation can now occur, especially if the attraction is mutual, which will blossom into a love relationship.

Asexuality is a major topic of discussion in the broad asexual spectrum identities. Asexuals do not feel sexually attracted to anyone.

Although there are certain types, some asexuals may be repulsed by sexual attractions, so they do not want any sexual activity.

Some might be neutral while another group may actually have sexual attractions but are not open about having sex. Most asexual humans can tell if someone is &ldquoattractive,&rdquo but they normally don't get attracted to anyone. In other words, they hardly have crushes, and they are bored with movie sex scenes.

However, the whole point of this article is that not all kinds of attraction are the same. While they won&rsquot experience sexual attraction, asexuals may experience romantic attraction, sensual attraction, physical attraction, and aesthetic attraction.

Attraction for a girl might be for the physical traits or emotional appeal. The physical could be the voice, hair, smile, muscle build, dentition, eye color, etc.

A girl can find someone emotionally appealing if such a person can connect with her soul on a really sweet level. It can also be influenced by biological factors such as pheromones, and socially attractive traits such as status, occupation, and wealth.

The factors of attraction that are obvious across the board include physical attractiveness, proximity, familiarity, similarity, and reciprocity.

Many a time, we are attracted to people that we consider to be physically attractive. Proximity, being in the same geographical location, favors attraction as well. Proximity and familiarity go hand-in-hand. On the other hand, similarity allows people of the same religion, social class, race, academic level, etc., to breed attraction. Reciprocity aids attraction because we come to like people who like us in return.

When a man is falling in love, he cannot hide it. You will see it in the way he wants to spend time with you, and when he does, he makes you comfortable.

He wants you to feel safe, so he holds you too. He loves to talk with you and makes eye contact with you. He smiles at your jokes and makes you feel like the most important person in the world.

On most occasions, men could have problems focusing on any other thing besides you. Also, the man may tend to be blinded to your flaws. When a man is falling with you, he may start to touch more often than ever. For instance, he may start to touch your shoulders, your hands, and other parts of your body to comfort you.

The seven stages of love, as described by the Sufi traditions, are attraction, attachment, love, trust, worship, madness, and death.

The attraction is the first stage where both parties find each other interesting. The next is attachment, where intending partners want to spend more time together. The love stage is the point where individuals are madly into each other. It is followed by trust, and lovers begin to trust each other more than anyone else.

The stage of worship is that stage where you may feel that there is no fault in your partner. It is followed by madness, which is characterized by obsession by the partner. Death here means that both parties now see themselves as incomplete without the other person.

The stages of dating are 5 in number viz attraction, reality, commitment, intimacy, and then, engagement. Many dating relationships experience some or all of these stages.

Attraction is that the initial stage filled with fantasy because your new partner is seemingly flawless. Then, reality creeps in, and you begin to see that your partner is just human, after all. When the reality phase has settled in, you may choose to commit and lock the door against other possible human interferences. It shows that you have created the human sides of your partner and the flaws too.

The stage of intimacy allows you to bond with your partner and invest in making your relationship work. And in the final stage of engagement, partners are willing to spend the rest of their lives together. With these stages, you can decide if you both are made for each other.

It is somewhat dicey to use the term 'straight asexual' because 'straight' means you are attracted to the opposite sex. 'Asexual,' on the other hand, means you do not have sexual feelings for anyone.

However, it is possible to tell that someone is attractive without being sexually attracted to them. Straight is a slang used to imply heterosexual. It typically implies attraction to the opposite gender. However, if the attraction is sexual, then you cannot be both straight (heterosexual) and asexual at the same time.

Within the asexual community the term &ldquoGray Asexual,&rdquo &ldquoGrace,&rdquo or "Gray-Aces" is used to describe people who experience sexual attraction on rare occasions (or under specific circumstances). Gray-aces may choose to act on this attraction or not. It's important to note that all sexualities are valid, and whether gray-aces choose to act on their attraction or not does not diminish the validity of their sexuality.

Men have different preferences for the woman of their dreams. However, men desire a woman with an appealing body shape typical of an ideal woman. That is, the hourglass shape with a low waist-to-hip ratio, good fragrance on them, nice hair, and a warm smile with a beautiful set of teeth.

On an average scale, men like women with nice looking body parts. For instance, men get attracted to a woman&rsquos breast, butt, eyes, lips, ears, skin, legs, and hair. A common thing that guys are very interested in is general facial symmetry. This implies that the woman must have balanced facial features like full lips, broad face, small nose, high cheekbones, smooth skin, wide-set eyes, and small chin.

What makes one sexually attracted to someone varies from person to person. It could be as basic as the voice. Soft-spoken voice or husky voice may make someone securely appealing to the other person. Certain facial traits like the shape of the face, nose, angle of the eyes, and size of lips may be appealing to some. In the same vein, some smells either of the body or fragrances may turn individuals on. The body shape can also make someone be sexually attractive.

Men express their love in several unique ways. Expression of their love may vary from person to person based on their love languages or that of their partners. They could employ words of affirmation, quality time, physical touch, acts of service, plenty of gifts and loads of surprises. Talking about saying the words 'I love you,' research has shown that men wait for about three months to say the three magic words.

On most occasions, men express their love during lovemaking because they feel a stronger bond of love during and after sex. That&rsquos not just men being crazed for sex &ndash sex releases an explosion of feel-good chemicals in the brain that hand around for quite a while afterword.

A man who shows his love or expresses his love to you makes you feel safe. Usually, that man will not give you any reason to doubt if he&rsquos in love with you or not. Most men love showing their love and affection by showering their partners with loads of gifts and constantly showing them care.

Many men fall in love in a pretty dramatic way. It is quite fast for the first stage of falling in love. Men can begin to fall in love some seconds after meeting a lady they perceive to be really attractive. Most of the time, men typically fall in love faster than women. After about three months, men are typically able to say those three magical love words. Most men tend to express their love much faster than a woman. So, if a man is really in love with you, he would not deny it.

Once he falls in love with you quickly, he would start touching your body more often. For instance, he may find excuses to touch your forearm, shoulder, hand, and other parts of your body. Most men take these steps because they just want to show you a sign of comfort. Ultimately, a man that is in love with you will protect you, make you feel secure in him, and shower you with so much warmth.

When you are falling in love, it will be evident in your body language and emotions. Although it feels different for different people, there are some common signs. In your emotions, you discover that you think about them more, and you want to communicate with them by all means. Everything feels so new and really thrilling. Above all, you start to think about the future, and your plan is drawn with your partner in it.

In the early stages of falling in love, you might have serious problems getting your mind off them. Primarily, this is because the brain releases phenylethylamine, which is also known as the love drug when you really can't get someone off your mind. When you're falling in love with someone, you may want to share all you have with them. In essence, you want to experience life with them and have sweet memories.

Past Coronaviruses

Are coronaviruses new?

Coronaviruses were first identified in the 1960s. Almost everyone gets a coronavirus infection at least once in their life, most likely as a young child. In the United States, regular coronaviruses are more common in the fall and winter, but anyone can come down with a coronavirus infection at any time.

The symptoms of most coronaviruses are similar to any other upper respiratory infection, including a runny nose, coughing, sore throat, and sometimes a fever. In most cases, you won't know whether you have a coronavirus or a different cold-causing virus, such as a rhinovirus. You treat this kind of coronavirus infection the same way you treat a cold.

Have there been other serious coronavirus outbreaks?

Coronaviruses have led to two serious outbreaks:

  • Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). About 858 people have died from MERS, which first appeared in Saudi Arabia and then in other countries in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Europe. In April 2014, the first American was hospitalized for MERS in Indiana, and another case was reported in Florida. Both had just returned from Saudi Arabia. In May 2015, there was an outbreak of MERS in South Korea, which was the largest outbreak outside of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In 2003, 774 people died from an outbreak. As of 2015, there were no further reports of cases of SARS.


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