6.1: Definitions - Biology

6.1: Definitions - Biology

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We start by defining a few terms. Anabolic processes refer to collections of biochemical reactions that make bigger molecules from smaller ones. Examples include the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, of proteins from amino acids, of complex carbohydrates from simple sugars, and of nucleic acids from nucleotides. Just as any construction project requires energy, so, too, do anabolic processes require input of energy. Anabolic processes tend to be reductive in nature, in contrast to catabolic processes, which are oxidative. Not all anabolic processes are reductive, though. Protein synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis do not involve reduction, though the synthesis of amino acids and nucleotides does.

Catabolic processes are the primary sources of energy for heterotrophic organisms and they ultimately power the anabolic processes. Examples include glycolysis (breakdown of glucose), the citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. Reductive processes require electron sources, such as NADPH, NADH, or ( ext{FADH}_2). Oxidative processes require electron carriers, such as ( ext{NAD}^+), ( ext{NADP}^+), or FAD. Catabolic processes are ultimately the source of ATP energy in cells, but the vast majority of ATP i
heterotrophic organisms is not made in directly in these reactions. Instead, the electrons released by oxidation are collected by electron carriers which donate them, in the mitochondria, to complexes that make ATP (ultimately) by oxidative phosphorylation.

6.1 Digestion

Here are JD and Turk to tell us about the diagnostic miracle of egestion:

Key terms: digestion, ingest, egestion, enzyme, absorption, assimilation, transport, villi, intestine, duodenum, ileum

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Comments 9

Excellent. May I show this to my nutrition students?

The link to the Essential Biology notes isn’t working. Any chance you could re-post them?

Hi stephen,
Great slides you have! (: Can I check with you if I can share this with my students?

Hi Lynette – thanks for the comment! – Go ahead and share them.

Hi Stephen, these are wonderful. can I download them to show to my students?

he already said YES, YES you can show them to your students.

It’s fine to show them to students. I’d prefer that they were embedded or sent the link. Please do not re-upload them anywhere else.

Hi Stephen are there any notes to fill in to this powerpoint

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