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In some willows, there is a clear distinction between floriferous buds (out of which the catkins grow) and vegetative buds. I have observed this phenomenon myself on numerous occasions (in fact, I can ID several species and hybrids on floriferous buds alone). However, I never took it further and there are things I still don't understand. What about those vegetative buds. What grows out of them: twigs with leaves on them out of some and single leaves out of others? And would there be any noticeable difference between these two types of vegetative buds (if they both existed)?
To answer the question in you title, the leaves appear both on new and old growth. In addition to vegetative and floral buds, there are also dormant buds that activate themselves on old growth after leaves or branches are cut. You can read here a list of buds.
For the following questions in the text I think the answer is different for every species.
Reasons Why New Growth Is Dying
New growth on your plants is a promise of blooms, big beautiful leaves, or, at the very least, an extended lifespan but when that new growth is wilting or dying, most gardeners panic, not knowing what to do. Although dying growth on plants of any age is a serious and difficult problem to manage, there are a few things you can try to save your plants before they go belly up.
Why Should I Prune My Tree Branches?
If you want your tree to be in the best state and live for a long time, then pruning is compulsory! Additionally, taking out diseased or dead branches keeps you, your home, and the household safe.
Below are the reasons you should prune your tree branches:
Prune Tree Branches For Good Health
Pruning tree branches for good health is essential when the tree is young. It is carried out on the tree a few years after planting the tree.
At this stage, the tree is trained to develop a sturdy and sound branch structure. Then the when the tree becomes more mature, you prune to reduce its thick canopy or get rid of weaker branches.
When you remove excessive branches, you improve the shape of the tree, and the amount of sunlight and air that circulates through the tree’s canopy is increased. As your elementary science suggests, when there is more sunlight, there is improved photosynthesis, which leads to increased growth!
Trees that are not pruned routinely or pruned at all deteriorate rapidly and die faster than trees that are routinely pruned.
Prune Tree Branches For Safety
Trees that are pruned are less likely to have their branches breaking off and falling during storms. This should be the first reason why you should have your trees pruned as at when due.
You wouldn’t want any weak branches destroying any of your property or even causing harm to you during adverse weather conditions.
In order to avoid any of these from happening, old trees should be pruned, and the not-so-healthy branches should be gotten rid of. While pruning, make sure to checkup your tree to ensure that it is entirely healthy.
A healthy tree would save you a lot of money and deliver pleasant aesthetics. Whereas if it is unhealthy and poorly maintained, the tree will cause you expensive damage to either your household or property or even both!
Take, for instance, a sweet gum tree weighs twice as much as a Honda Civic at 52, 000 pounds, and 75 feet in height. Now, imagine the grievous damage this tree would cause if the branches are left unattended to and a storm strikes!
Damaged and downed trees account for more than $1billion in property damage yearly in the United States.
When you think of not pruning your tree branches, think of your home and other valuable property you have.
For Aesthetics and Improved Home Value
One of the reasons you should prune your tree branches is to improve the tree’s appearance, which influences the aesthetics it offers to your landscape.
In addition to this, a well maintained, beautiful tree will improve the value of the home, in which it is grown, should you want to sell the home. Research showed that a healthy tree in front of a house increases the value of the house by $7,130 on average.
If the tree bears fruits, pruning the tree would help it grow bigger fruits consistently over its fruiting seasons. So, pruning offers a win-win situation.
Identifying New Orchid Growth: Is It a Root or a New Flower Spike?
It is exciting when you first spy a tiny bump of green poking out among the leaves at the base of your Phalaenopsis orchid plant. Is it an aerial root or could it be a new flower spike? In Phalaenopsis orchids, both roots and spikes begin as tiny green shoots and it can be tricky to tell them apart, especially if you’re an orchid newbie. You may have to wait to see what develops.
Patience Pays Off
As you gain experience with your orchid, the differences between roots and spikes will become more evident. Determining whether a new growth is a root or a flower spike is largely a matter of visual observation and time. You should wait to stake a new growth until you see that it is in fact a flower spike and is as tall as the stake itself. Quite often, Phalaenopsis orchids will send up new leaves and new roots shortly before producing a new flower stalk.
Here’s what to look for when identifying new orchid growths:
- Orchid roots have rounded green tips. As roots grow, they are covered with a protective substance that gives them a whitish or silvery appearance. Aerial roots that hang from the orchid’s spike or curl up and over the edges of its pot are common in Phalaenopsis orchids.
- Flower spikes are usually greener than roots and have a flatter, mitten-shaped tip. While growing, spikes remain green along their full length. Spikes usually emerge from between the plant’s leaves, not from the plant’s center.
Take some time to discover more about orchid anatomy and how orchids grow.
Do leaves only appear on new growth? - Biology
P lants come from seeds. Each seed contains a tiny plant waiting for the right conditions to germinate, or start to grow.
What Do Seeds Need to Start to Grow?
Seeds wait to germinate until three needs are met: water, correct temperature (warmth), and a good location (such as in soil). During its early stages of growth, the seedling relies upon the food supplies stored with it in the seed until it is large enough for its own leaves to begin making food through photosynthesis. The seedling's roots push down into the soil to anchor the new plant and to absorb water and minerals from the soil. And its stem with new leaves pushes up toward the light:
The germination stage ends when a shoot emerges from the soil. But the plant is not done growing. It's just started. Plants need water, warmth, nutrients from the soil, and light to continue to grow.
All of these nutrients are taken in through the roots. Water transfers the nutrients from the soil to the plant roots, so water is one key requirement of sufficient plant nutrition.
A second requirement is the appropriate soil pH for the plant being grown. Each plant prefers a specific pH range to be able to access the nutrients in the soil. Some plants are fussier than others, but if the soil pH is too acidic or alkaline, the plant will not be able to take in nutrients no matter how rich your soil may be.
|Plant Macronutrient Deficiency|
|New leaves are distorted or hook-shaped. The growing tip may die. Contributes to blossom end rot in tomatoes, tip burn of cabbage and brown/black heart of escarole & celery.||Any compound containing the word 'calcium.' Also gypsum.||Problems usually caused by too much calcium, not a deficiency.|
|Older leaves, generally at the bottom of the plant, will yellow. Remaining foliage is often light green. Stems may also yellow and may become spindly. Growth slows.||Any compound containing the words: 'nitrate,' 'ammonium,' or 'urea.' Also manure.||Many forms of nitrogen are water soluble and wash away.|
|Slow growth and leaves turn pale yellow, sometimes just on the outer edges. New growth may be yellow with dark spots.||Compounds containing the word 'magnesium,' such as Epson Salts.|
|Small leaves that may take on a reddish-purple tint. Leaf tips can look burnt and older leaves become almost black. Reduced fruit or seed production.||Compounds containing the words 'phosphate' or 'bone.' Also greensand.||Dependent on soil pH range.|
|New growth turns pale yellow, older growth stays green. Stunts growth.||Compounds containing the word 'sulfate.'||More prevalent in dry weather.|
|Plant Micronutrient Deficiency|
|Poor stem and root growth. Terminal (end) buds may die. Witches brooms sometimes form in conifer and deciduous trees.||Compounds containing the words 'borax' or 'borate.'|
|Stunted growth. Leaves can become limp, curl, or drop. Seed stalks also become limp and bend over.||Compounds containing the words 'copper,' 'cupric,' or 'cuprous.'|
|Growth slows. Younger leaves turn pale yellow, often starting between veins. May develop dark or dead spots. Leaves, shoots, and fruit diminished in size. Failure to bloom.||Compounds containing the words 'manganese' or 'manganous.'|
|Older leaves yellow, remaining foliage turns light green. Leaves can become narrow and distorted.||Compounds containing the words 'molybdate' or 'molybdic.'||Sometimes confused with nitrogen deficiency.|
|Yellowing between veins of new growth. Terminal (end) leaves may form a rosette.||Compounds containing the word 'zinc.'||Can become limited in higher soil pH.|
Once you get your plants back to health, keep them growing that way by amending your soil every year with fresh organic matter and have your soil tested periodically, to correct imbalances before they become extreme.
Green light: Is it important for plant growth?
Green light is considered the least efficient wavelength in the visible spectrum for photosynthesis, but it is still useful in photosynthesis and regulates plant architecture.
Sometimes one may hear that plants don&rsquot use green light for photosynthesis, they reflect it. However, this is only partly true. While most plants reflect more green than any other in the visible spectrum, a relatively small percentage of green light is transmitted through or reflected by the leaves. The majority of green light is useful in photosynthesis. The relative quantum efficiency curve (Photo 1) shows how efficiently plants use wavelengths between 300 and 800 nm. Green light is the least efficiently used color of light in the visible spectrum.
Photo 1. Relative quantum efficiency curve. (Adapted by Erik Runkle from McCree, 1972. Agric. Meteorology 9:191-216.)
As a part of a series of experiments performed in enclosed environments, Michigan State University Extension investigated how different wavebands of light (blue, green and red) from LEDs influenced growth of seedlings. We grew tomato &lsquoEarly Girl,&rsquo salvia &lsquoVista Red,&rsquo petunia &lsquoWave Pink,&rsquo and impatiens &lsquoSuperElfin XP Red&rsquo in growth chambers for four to five weeks at 68 degrees Fahrenheit under 160 µmol∙m -2 ∙s -1 of LED or fluorescent light. The percentages from each LED color were: B25+G25+R50 (25 percent of light from blue and green LEDs and 50 percent from red LEDs) B50+G50 B50+R50 G50+R50 R100 and B100.
Plants grown with 50 percent green and 50 percent red light were approximately 25 percent shorter than those grown under only red light, but approximately 50 percent taller than all plants grown under more than 25 percent blue light (Photo 2). Therefore, blue light suppressed extension growth more than green light in an enclosed environment. Twenty-five percent green light could substitute for the same percentage of blue light without affecting fresh weight. However, the electrical efficiency of the green LEDs was much lower than that of blue LEDs. To read more about this experiment, please read &ldquoGrowing Plants under LEDs: Part Two&rdquo in Greenhouse Grower.
Photo 2. Salvia grown for four weeks under the same intensity of blue (B), green (G) and red (R) LEDs or fluorescent lamps (FL). The number after each color represents the percentage of that color, e.g., B50+R50 means that plants were grown under 50 percent blue light and 50 percent red light.
One potential advantage of including green in a light spectrum is to reduce eye strain of employees. Under monochromatic, or sometimes two colors of light such as blue and red, plants may not appear their typical color, which could make noticing nutritional, disease or insect pest issues difficult. Another potential advantage of green light is that it can penetrate a canopy better than other wavebands of light. It&rsquos possible that with better canopy penetration, lower leaves will continue to photosynthesize, leading to less loss of the lower leaves.
The authors would like to thank all our colleagues and associates at Kennedy Space Center who supported the APEX/TAGES flight experiment, especially David Cox, Howard Levine, Dave Reed, April Spinale, Trevor Murdoch, Matt Regan, Sergie Albino, Todd Mortenson, Richard Meshberger, Bill Wells, and Bill McLamb. DR5::GFP was kindly provided by Tom Guilfoyle. Craig Moneypenny, ICBR-UF, contributed to the collection of the confocal microscopy images. This work was supported by NASA grants NNX07AH270 and NNX09AL96G to R.J.F and A-L.P. Publication of this article was funded in part by the University of Florida Open-Access Publishing Fund.
Where should I plant geraniums for the best results?
Geraniums love warm, sunny positions but will still do very well in areas of part shade. Spread your geraniums around through beds and borders, avoiding deep shade and waterlogged areas. Perfect for containers, geraniums are an easy way to brighten up your whole garden, including hanging baskets and window boxes. Unlike other plants, they don’t flag in the heat, so they’re especially good for drought-prone areas. For the best results, ensure they’re kept moist and receive some sun each day.
I hope we’ve answered your geranium plant questions and concerns. For more information about growing and caring for pelargoniums, head to our geraniums hub page for more help, tips & tricks! Share your geranium photographs via our social channels using the hashtag #YourTMGarden.