Identifying a mushroom. (Pyrenees near Gavarnie, France)

Identifying a mushroom. (Pyrenees near Gavarnie, France)

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Can anyone help me identify this mushroom? (a still frame from video taken in the Pyrenees near Gavarnie in France). Also is it edible or poisonous?

This is almost certainly the parasol mushroom, Macrolepiota procera. The parasol mushroom is edible, but many other often resembling mushrooms are not. Never eat a wild mushroom unless you're an expert or consulted one.

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Meet the Sherlock Holmes of animal tracks

A bracing hike on a crisp winter day does more than just blow the cobwebs away - it can also bring you closer to nature as the damp conditions make it ideal for spotting animal tracks.

But while many of us will wonder about the identity of the creatures that have crossed our path, one man could not only identify them, he could tell you a lot about how they are faring in the cold months - and he is keen to pass on his knowledge of his little-known branch of science.

Jean-Louis Orengo is passionate about ichnology, a mix of geology and biology which focuses on animal traces like footprints and burrows. Fascinating in its own right, it is also an unintrusive way of monitoring wildlife.

He says he was not a good pupil. "I didn’t like school - it was boring. But I love to learn things and I discovered ichnology through my passion for nature, which I've always loved. I started following footprints and tracking animals when I was out hunting. But then I just got interested in tracking them for the sake of finding out about them."

Mr Orengo is a keen hunter and also fishes, collects mushrooms, and photographs the countryside. He said he discovered ichnology was a genuine science when he met a naturalist in the Pyrenees who was studying plants, insects, and mammals.

"It’s not particularly well-known to the public, but ichnology is a well-established science often used in palaeontology for identifying dinosaur tracks, working out their species, weight, behaviour, how fast it moved, all sorts of information. You can even discover their personal identity, diet and gender."

He started taking mouldings of the tracks he found, and started making moulds of wild animal tracks in the snow during a five-month field-trip to Canada, where he learned to interpret the results.

He went on to lead more expeditions in Canada and Gabon, and became passionate about teaching his skills to a new generation.

Later, while on a trip to Morocco he became interested in making moulds of animal prints in sand, and is now investigating the possibilities of preserving underwater tracks.
He said: "Obviously, animals leave tracks from wading into the water, but fish and other aquatic life also leave their tracks on the ocean floor."

He likens ichnology to detective work. "You explore and discover facts using clues, aiming to find out the truth about what animal do and where they go."

He has passed on his knowledge to park rangers working in France’s nature reserves and says they also found it fascinating. “It’s a new way of looking at things, which complements their current skills.

“It’s about working out the psychology of animals - why did they do this or that? Now, they use this in their work, not just to find out what animals are present, but discover how they behave, and check on their well-being. Using ichnology, you can map territories - and often tracks appear long before you sight the animal itself."

Despite his school experience, Mr Orengo is passionate about passing on his knowledge, and his theme park Au Pays des Traces in Saint-Lizier, about an hour’s drive south of Toulouse, is designed to transmit the skills he has acquired.

It is set in the Parc Naturel Régional des Pyrénées Ariégeoises, making it a great place to visit before hiking through the park.

”It’s for both children and adults, with lots of workshops and activities adapted to various age-groups. It’s not at all like the school I went to . it’s much more fun! And there are activities for adults too. It’s best to come for a whole day in the summer, or an afternoon out of season.

“Once you’ve been to the park you’ll understand so much more of what you see hiking through the national park."

Mr Orengo seems to have boundless energy, going into schools to give talks, passing on his knowledge to park rangers, running the theme park, marketing his invention ‘La Georgette’ and now he’s thinking about writing a book.

"I haven’t started writing yet because it’s difficult to fit everything in - I do work a lot.

“But succeeding with projects gives us the means to continue. Giving classes in schools is really important, and we are establishing a ‘Conservatoire of Ichnologie’ very near to the theme park in Saint-Lizier. We have already bought buildings offering 1,600m2 of space and now we need to raise the money to refurbish them."

His invention, the prize-winning Georgette is a fork knife and spoon in one implement. It is available online from and Profits from the sales goes towards establishing the Conservatoire, which helps convince banks to invest in the project, rather than have commercial sponsors or funding from the public sector, either of which he fears could lead to interference in the content.

"La Georgette respects the environment because you only need a third of the metal to manufacture it, and it prevents people from using plastic cutlery. I think it also encourages people to get out into nature, go for a walk, have a picnic, go camping. We also sell a special cover for it."

Getting in touch with nature can be difficult for city-dwellers, who can find themselves divorced from the natural world. "There are two ways of approaching this," said Mr Orengo. "It’s not people’s fault, of course. Cities have to invite nature in, and also should encourage people to study nature in cities. You can use ichnology in cities, discovering traces of humans. I think this is very pertinent now."


A round Bordeaux are smiling hills, varied horizons, fresh valleys, a river peopled by incessant navigation, a succession of cities and villages harmoniously planted upon the declivities or in the plains, everywhere the richest verdure, the luxury of nature and civilization, the earth and man vying with each other to enrich and decorate the happiest valley of France. Below Bordeaux a flat soil, marshes, sand a land which goes on growing poorer, villages continually, less frequent, ere long the desert. I like the desert as well.

Pine woods pass to the right and to the left, silent and wan. [013]

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[015] Each tree bears on its side the scar of wounds where the woodmen have set flowing the resinous blood which chokes it the powerful liquor still ascends into its limbs with the sap, exhales by its slimy shoots and by its cleft skin a sharp aromatic odor fills the air.

Beyond, the monotonous plain of the ferns, bathed in light, stretches away as far as the eye can reach. Their green fans expand beneath the sun which colors, but does not cause them to fade. Upon the horizon a few scattered trees lift their slender columns. You see now and then the silhouette of a herdsman on his stilts, inert and standing like a sick heron. Wild horses are grazing half hid in the herbage. As the train passes, they abruptly lift their great startled eyes and stand motionless, uneasy at the noise that has troubled their solitude. Man does not fare well here,&mdashhe dies or degenerates but it is the country of animals, and especially of plants. They abound in this desert, free, certain of living. Our pretty, cutup valleys are but poor things alongside of these immense spaces, leagues upon leagues of marshy or dry vegetation, a level country, where nature, elsewhere troubled and tortured by men, still vegetates as in primeval days with a calm equal to its grandeur. The sun needs these savannas in order properly to spread out its light from the rising exhalation, you feel that the whole plain is [016] fermenting under its force and the eyes filled by the limitless horizon divine the secret labor by which this ocean of rank verdure renews and nourishes itself.

Night without a moon has come on. The peaceful stars shine like points of flame the whole air is filled with a blue and tender light, which seems to sleep in the network of vapor wherein it lies. The eye penetrates it without apprehending anything. At long intervals, in this twilight, a wood confusedly marks its spot, like a rock at the bottom of a lake everywhere around are vague depths, veiled and floating forms, indistinct and fantastic creatures melting into each other, fields that look like a billowy sea, clumps of trees that you might take for summer clouds,&mdashthe whole graceful chaos of commingled phantoms, of things of the night. The mind floats here as on a fleeting stream, and nothing seems to it real, in this dream, but the pools which reflect the stars and make on earth a second heaven.

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Bayonne is a gay city, original and half Spanish. On all sides are men in velvet vest and small-clothes you hear the sharp, sonorous music of the tongue spoken beyond the mountains. Squatty arcades border the principal streets there is need of shade under such a sun.

A pretty episcopal palace, in its modern elegance, makes the ugly cathedral still uglier. The poor, abortive monument piteously lifts its belfry, that for three centuries has remained but a stump. Booths are stuck in its hollows, after the manner of warts here and there they have laid on a rude plaster of stone. The old invalid is a sad spectacle alongside of the new houses and busy shops which crowd around its grimy flanks. [018] I was quite troubled at this decrepitude, and when once I had entered, I became still more melancholy. Darkness fell from the vault like a winding-sheet I could make out nothing but o o worm-eaten pillars, smoke-darkened pictures, expanses of greenish wall. Two fresh toilettes that I met increased the contrast nothing could shock one more in this place than rose-colored ribbons.

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I was looking upon the spectre of the middle ages how opposed to it are the security and abundance of modern life! Those sombre vaults, those slender columns, those rose windows, blood-dyed, called up dreams and emotions which are now impossible for us. You should feel here what men felt six hundred years ago, when they swarmed forth from their hovels, from their unpaved, six-feet-wide streets, sinks of uncleanness, and reeking with fever and leprosy when their unclad bodies, undermined by famine, sent a thin blood to their brutish brains when wars, atrocious laws, and legends of sorcery filled their dreams with vivid and melancholy images when over the bedizened draperies, over the riddles of painted glass, the rose windows, like a conflagration or an aureole, poured their transfigured rays.

These are the remembrances of fever and ecstasy: to get rid of them I have come out to the port it is a long alley of old trees at the side of [019] the Adour. Here all is gay and picturesque. Serious oxen, with lowered heads, drag the beams that are being unloaded. Rope-makers, girt with a wisp of hemp, walk backward tightening their threads, and twining their ever-growing cable. The ships in file are made fast at the quay the slender cordage outlines its labyrinth against the sky, and the sailors hang in it hooked on like spiders in their web. Great casks, bales, pieces of wood are strewn pell-mell over the flags.

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You are pleased to feel that man is working and prosperous. And here nature too is as happy as man. The broad silver river unrolls itself under the radiance of the morning. Slender clouds throw out on the azure their band of mother-of-pearl. The sky is like an arch of lapis-lazuli. Its vault rests on the confines of the flood which advances waveless and effortless, under the glitter of its peaceful undulations, between two ranges of declivity, [020] away to a hill where pine-woods of a tender green slope down to meet it, as graceful as itself. The tide meanwhile rises, and the leaves on the oaks begin to shine, and to whisper under the feeble wind off the sea.

It rains: the inn is insupportable. It is stifling under the arcades I am bored at the café, and am acquainted with nobody. The sole resource is to go to the library. That is closed.

Fortunately the librarian takes pity on me, and opens for me. Better yet, he brings me all sorts of charters and old books he is both very learned and very amiable, explains everything to me, guides, informs and installs me. Here I am then in a corner, alone at a table, with the documents of a fine and thoroughly enjoyable history it is a pastoral of the middle ages. I have nothing better to do than to tell it over for my own benefit.

Pé de Puyane was a brave man and a skilful sailor, who in his day was Mayor of Bayonne and admiral but he was harsh with his men, like all who have managed vessels, and would any day rather fell a man than take off his cap. He had long waged war against the seamen of Normandy, and on one occasion he hung seventy of them to his yards, cheek [021] by jowl with some dogs. He hoisted on his galleys red flags signifying death and no quarter, and led to the battle of Ecluse the great Genoese ship Christophle, and managed his hands so well that no Frenchman escaped for they were all drowned or killed, and the two admirals, Quieret and Bahuchet, having surrendered themselves, Bahuchet had a cord tightened around his neck, while Quieret had his throat cut. That was good management for the more one kills of his enemies, the less he has of them. For this reason, the people of Bayonne, on his return, entertained him with such a noise, such a clatter of horns, of cornets, of drums and all sorts of instruments, that it would have been impossible on that day to hear even the thunder of God.

It happened that the Basques would no longer pay the tax upon cider, which was brewed at Bayonne for sale in their country. Pe de Puyane said that the merchants of the city should carry them no more, and that, if any one carried them any, he should have his hand cut off. Pierre Cambo, indeed, a poor man, having carted two hogsheads of it by night, was led out upon the market-place, before Notre Dame de Saint-Léon, which was then building, and had his hand amputated, and the veins afterwards stopped with red-hot irons after that he was driven in a tumbrel throughout the city, [022] which was an excellent example for the smaller folk should always do the bidding of men in high position.

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Afterwards, Pé de Puyane having assembled the hundred peers in the town-house, showed them that the Basques being traitors, rebels toward the seigniory of Bayonne, should no longer keep the franchises which had been granted them that the seigniory of Bayonne, possessing the sovereignty of the sea, might with justice impose a tax in all the places to which the sea rose, as if they were in its port, and that accordingly the Basques should henceforth [023] pay for passing to Villefranche, to the bridge of the Nive, the limit of high tide. All cried out that that was but just, and Pé de Puyane declared the toll to the Basques but they all fell to laughing, saying they were not dogs of sailors like the mayor&rsquos subjects. Then having come in force, they beat the bridgemen, and left three of them for dead.

Pé said nothing, for he was no great talker but he clinched his teeth, and looked so terribly around him, that none dared ask him what he would do, nor urge him on, nor indeed breathe a word. From the first Saturday in April to the middle of August, several men were beaten, as well Bayonnais as Basques, but still war was not declared, and, when they talked of it to the mayor, he turned his back.

The twenty-fourth day of August, many noblemen among the Basques, and several young people, good leapers and dancers, came to the castle of Miot for the festival of Saint Bartholomew. They feasted and showed off the whole day, and the young people who jumped the pole, with their red sashes and white breeches, appeared adroit and handsome. That night came a man who talked low to the mayor, and he, who ordinarily wore a grave and judicial air, suddenly had eyes as bright as those of a youth who sees the coming of his bride. He went down his staircase with four bounds, led out a band of old sailors who were come one by one, covertly, [024] into the lower hall, and set out by dark night with several of the wardens, having closed the gates of the city for fear that some traitor, such as there are everywhere, should go before them.

Having arrived at the castle they found the drawbridge down and the postern open, so confident and unsuspecting were the Basques, and entered, cutlasses drawn and pikes forward, into the great hall. There were killed seven young men who had barricaded themselves behind tables, and would there make sport with their dirks but the good halberds, well pointed and sharp as they were, soon silenced them. The others, having closed the gates from within, thought that they would have power to defend themselves or time to flee but the Bayonne marines, with their great axes, hewed down the planks, and split the first brains which happened to be near. The mayor, seeing that the Basques were tightly girt with their red sashes, went about saying (for he was usually facetious on days of battle): &ldquoLard these fine gallants for me forward the spit into their flesh justicoats&rdquo and in fact the spits went forward, so that all were perforated and opened, some through and through, so that you might have seen daylight through them, and that the hall half an hour after was full of pale and red bodies, several bent over benches, others in a pile in the corners, some with their noses glued to the table like drunkards, [025] so that a Bayonnais, looking at them, said: &ldquoThis is the veal market.&rdquo Many, pricked from behind, had leaped through the windows, and were found next morning, with cleft head or broken spine, in the ditches.

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There remained only five men alive, noblemen, two named d&rsquoUrtubie, two de Saint-Pé, and one, de Lahet, whom the mayor had set aside as a precious commodity then, having sent some one to open the gates of Bayonne and command the people to come, he ordered them to set fire to the castle. It was a fine sight, for the castle burned from midnight until morning as each turret, wall or floor fell, the people, delighted, raised a great shout. [026] There were volleys of sparks in the smoke and flames that stopped short, then began again suddenly, as at public rejoicings so that the warden, an honorable advocate, and a great literary man, uttered this saying: &ldquoFine festival for Bayonne folk for the Basques great barbecue of hogs.&rdquo

The castle being burned, the mayor said to the five noblemen that he wished to deal with them with all friendliness, and that they should themselves be judges, if the tide came as far as the bridge then he had them fastened two by two to the arches until the tide should rise, assuring them that they were in a good place for seeing. The people were all on the bridge and along the banks, watching the swelling of the flood. Little by little it mounted to their breasts, then to their necks, and they threw back their heads so as to lift their mouths a little higher. The people laughed aloud, calling out to them that the time for drinking had come, as with the monks at matins, and that they would have enough for the rest of their days. Then the water entered the mouth and nose of the three who were lowest their throats gurgled as when bottles are filled, and the people applauded, saying that the drunkards swallowed too fast, and were going to strangle themselves out of pure greediness. There remained only the two men, [027] d&rsquoUrtubie, bound to the principal arch, father and son, the son a little lower down. When the father saw his child choking, he stretched out his arms with such force that a cord broke: but that was all, and the hemp cut into his flesh without his being able to get any further. Those above, seeing that the youth&rsquos eyes were rolling, while the veins on his forehead were purple and swollen, and that the water bubbled around him with his hiccough, called him baby, and asked why he had sucked so hard, and if nurse was not coming soon to put him to bed. At this the father cried out like a wolf, spat into the air at them, and called them butchers and cowards. That offended them so that they began throwing stones at him with such sure aim that his white head was soon reddened and his right eye gushed out it was small loss to him, for shortly after, the mounting wave shut up the other. When the water was gone down, the mayor commanded that the five bodies, which hung with necks twisted and limp, should be left a testimony to the Basques that the water of Bayonne did come up to the bridge, and that the toll was justly due from them. He then returned home amidst the acclamations of his people, who were delighted that they had so good a mayor, a sensible man, a great lover of justice, quick in wise enterprises, and who rendered to every man his due. [028] .

As he was setting out, he had put sixty men at the entrance of the bridge, in the toll-tower, ordering them to look out well for themselves, and warning them that the Basques would not be slow in seeking to avenge themselves. But they flattered themselves that they still had at least one good night, and they busied their throats mightily with emptying flagons. Towards the middle of the night, there being no moon, came up about two hundred Basques for they are alert as the antelope,* and their runners had awakened that morning more than twenty villages in the Soule with the story of fire and drowning. The younger men, with several older heads, had set out forthwith by crooked circuitous paths, barefoot, that they might make no noise, well armed with cutlasses, crampoons and several slender rope-ladders and, adroit as foxes, they had stolen to the base of the tower, to a place on the eastern side where it plunges straight down to the bed of the river, a real quagmire, so that here there was no guard, and the rolling of the water on the pebbles might drown their slight noise, should they make any. They fixed their crampoons in the crannies of the stones, and, little by little, Jean Amacho, a man from Béhobie, a noted hunter of [029] mountain beasts, climbed upon the battlements of the first wall, then, having steadied a pole against a window of the tower, he entered and hooked on two ladders the others mounted in their turn, until there were about fifty of them and new men were constantly coming, as many as the ladders would bear, noiselessly striding over the window-sill.

They were in a little, low ante-room, and from thence, in the great hall of the first floor, six steps below them, they beheld the Bayonnais, of whom there were but three in this place, two asleep, and a third who had just waked up and was rubbing his eyes, with his back turned to the small door of the ante-room. Jean Amacho gave a sign to the two men who had mounted immediately after him, and all jumped together with a single leap, and so nicely that, at the same moment, their three knives pierced the throats of the Bayonnais, who, bowing their limbs, sank without a cry to the ground. The other Basques then came in, and waited at the verge of the great balustraded staircase leading into the lower hall where were the Bayonnais, some in a heap sleeping near the fireplace, others calling out and sharpset at feasting.

One of these feeling that his hair was moist, lifted his head, saw some little red streams running from between the joists of the ceiling, and began to laugh, saying that the greedy fellows up there could no [030] longer hold their cups, and were wasting good wine, which was very wrong of them. But finding that this wine was quite warm, he took some on his finger, then touched his tongue, and saw, by the insipid taste, that it was blood. He proclaimed this aloud, and the Bayonnais starting up grasped their pikes and ran for the staircase. Thereupon the Basques who had waited, not being sufficiently numerous, wished to recover the moment and rushed forth but the first comers felt the point of the pikes, and were lifted, just as bundles of hay are spitted on the forks to be thrown into a loft then the Bayonnais, holding themselves close together, and bristling in front with pikes, began to mount.

Just then a valiant Basque, Antoine Chaho, and two others with him, dropped down along the wall, lizard fashion, making a cover of dead bodies and gliding between the great legs of the sailors of Bayonne, began work with their knives upon their hamstrings so that the Bayonnais, wedged in the stairway, and embarrassed by the men and the pikes that were falling crosswise, could neither get on nor wield their spits with such nicety. At this moment, Jean Amacho and several young Basques, having espied their moment, leaped more than twenty feet clear into the middle of the hall, to a place where no halberds were ready, and began cutting throats with great promptness, then, thrown upon their [031] knees, fell to ripping open bellies they killed far more than they lost, because they had deft hands, while many were well padded with wool and wore leather shirts, and besides, the handles to their knives were wound with cord and did not slip. Moreover the Basques from above, who now numbered more than a hundred, rolled down the staircase like a torrent of goats new ones came up every moment, and in every corner of the hall, man to man, they began to run each other through.

There died Jean Amacho in a sad enough fashion, and from no fault of his own for after he had cut the throat of a Bayonnais,&mdashhis ordinary mode of killing, and, indeed, the best of all,&mdashhe held his head too near, and the jet from the two great veins of the neck spirted into his face like the froth from a jar of perry as it is uncorked, and suddenly shut up both his eyes accordingly he was unable to avoid a Bayonnais who was at his left the fellow planted his dagger in Jean&rsquos back, who spit out blood, and died a minute after.

But the Bayonnais, who were less numerous and less adroit, could make no stand, and at the end of half an hour there remained only a dozen of them, driven into a corner near a little cellar where were kept the jugs and bottles. In order the sooner to reduce these, the Basques gathered together the pikes, and began driving through this heap of men [032] and the Bayonnais, as anybody will on feeling an iron point prick through his skin, stepped back and rolled together into the cellar. Just at this moment the torches went out, and the Basques, in order not to wound each other, dressed the whole armful of pikes, and harpooned at random forward into the cellar during more than a quarter of an hour, so as to make sure that no Bayonnais remained alive and thus, when all was become tranquil, and the torches were relighted, and they looked in, they saw that the cellar resembled a pork-butcher&rsquos chopping-block, the bodies being cut in twenty places, and separated from their heads, and the limbs being confusedly thrown together, till only salt was wanting to make a salting-tub of the place.

But the younger of the Basques, although there was nothing more to kill, rolled their eyes all around the hall, grinding their teeth like hounds after the quarry they cried aloud continually, trembling in their limbs and clenching their fingers after the handles of their daggers several, wounded and whitelipped, no longer felt their wounds or their loss of blood, remained crouching beside the man they had last killed, and then involuntarily leaped to their feet. One or two laughed with the fixity of madmen, and varied this with a hoarse roar and there was in the room such a mist of carnage that any one seeing [033] them reeling or howling thus, might have believed them drunk with wine.

At sunrise, when they had loosed the five drowned men from the arches, they cast all the Bayonnais upon the current of the stream, and said that they might go down thus to their sea, and that this cartful of dead flesh was such toll as the Basques would pay. The congealed wounds were opened again by the coldness of the water it was a fine sight: by means of the blood that flowed, the river blushed red as a morning sky.

After this the Basques and the men of Bayonne fought several years more, man against man, band against band and many brave men died on both sides. At the end, the two parties agreed to submit to the arbitration of Bernard Ezi, Sire d&rsquoAlbret. The lord of Albret said that the men of Bayonne, since they had made the first attack, were in fault he ordained that in future the Basques should pay no toll, that, on the contrary, the city of Bayonne should pay them fifteen hundred new golden crowns and should establish ten priestly prebendaryships, which should cost four thousand old crowns of the first coinage of France, of good gold and loyal weight, for the repose of the souls of the five gentlemen drowned without confession, which, perchance, were in purgatory, and had need of many masses in order to get out. But the Basques [034] were unwilling that Pê de Puyane, the mayor, should be included in this peace, either he or his sons, and they reserved the right to pursue them until they had taken vengeance on his flesh and his race. The mayor retired to Bordeaux, to the house of the Prince of Wales, of whom he was a great friend and good servant, and during two o o years did not go outside of the city, excepting three or four times, well steeled, and attended by men-at-arms. But one day, when he had gone to see a vineyard he had bought, he withdrew a little from his troop to lift a great black vine-stock which was falling into the ditch a moment after, his men heard a little sharp cry, like that of a thrush caught in a snare when they had run up they saw Pé de Puyane dead, with a knife a fathom long which had entered by the armpit where he was unprotected by his cuirass. His elder son, Sebastian, who had fled to Toulouse, was killed by Augustin de Lahet, nephew of the man who was drowned the other, Hugues, survived and founded a family, since, having gone by sea to England, he remained there, and received from King Edward a knight&rsquos fief. But neither he nor his children ever returned into Gascony they did wisely, for they would have found their grave-diggers there. [035]

Challenges in the delimitation of morphologically similar species: a case study of Tuber brumale agg. (Ascomycota, Pezizales)

Tuber brumale (winter truffle) is one of the most controversial true truffles, not only in regard to its ecological and economical role but also its taxonomy. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses have revealed that specimens identified earlier as T. brumale belong to two species. These species were deemed cryptic right away, because preliminary morphological measurements did not show any phenotypical differences. In this study, we measured the morphology of 119 T. brumale agg. specimens, identified by DNA-based phylogenetic tools. We found several continuous morphological characters which show strong statistical differences between the two species, albeit not without overlap. Using a combination of these characters, we show that efficient separation of the two species is possible. We describe T. cryptobrumale sp. nov. and present the environmental demands and the potential area reconstruction of both species. We argue that non-representative sampling is a major culprit in most failures to detect both the existence of morphologically similar species and their morphological differences. Our findings illustrate the benefits of integrative taxonomy: the use of a combination of molecular, morphological and ecological tools.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Author information


Department of Life Sciences (Botany), University of Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain

Ibai Olariaga, Gabriel Moreno & Jose Luis Manjón

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology (Botany), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080, Bilbao, Spain

Ibai Olariaga & Isabel Salcedo

Department of Plant Protection, Agroscope Changins-Wadenswil Research Station, ACW, Rte de Duiller, 1260, Nyon, Switzerland

Kherdzmari St. Microdistrict 11. Block 58, Flat 69, Temka, Tbilisi, Georgia

Département Systématique et Évolution, CP 39, ISYEB, UMR 7205 CNRS MNHN UPMC EPHE, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 12 Rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France

Identifying a mushroom. (Pyrenees near Gavarnie, France) - Biology

Ordering sweetgrass plants ,

We offer two kinds of live plants, the Regular (left) and the Supershamanistic™ (right) , photographed on June first in 2-3/4" pots. The Supershamanistic™ is a more robust plant, growing three times faster , and looks like it is exploding out of the pot. We can get 3-5 cuts a year from our Supershamanistic™ plants , but only one or two cuts from the Regular.


This web site contains the most detailed information ever compiled about sweetgrass, over 11,000 words and is 50 pages long when printed out.

Copyright © 1992, 2000, 2003 - 2017 by Sue & Craig Dremann,
a 51% woman-owned business, established in 1972.

Redwood City Seed Co mpany, Box 361, Redwood City, CA 94064.

Order by phone 650-325-7333 or FAX (650) 325-4056.

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Anyone lifting any sentences from this web site , and reprinting, or posting them on the web, or distributing them as an electronic file (like PDF) without written permission, including for educational use, agrees to pay on demand, liquidated damages of $100 per sentence per day . Please note that the Leaf Nutrient level chart, the sweetgrass regrowing chart and the sweetgrass drying charts are each twenty sentences-worth of liquidated damages.

By lifting any images and using it without a license, you agree to pay on demand, liquidated damages of $100 per image per day . Any single image copied and made into multiple copies, like resizing to make thumbnails or enlarged views for selling plants on Ebay or at an Webstore for example, each separate copy of an image is counted separately for the purpose of calculating daily liquidated damages. Fractions of one day, will be prorated at 7 cents per minute.

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Sweetgrass or Sweet Grass (Hierochlöe odorata)
Seed stalk, life-size, very important for positive identification.

DESCRIPTION & HISTORY of SWEETGRASS is a winter-hardy aromatic perennial grass, normally found growing in rich, moist soil from Alaska to Newfoundland in full sun, and is also native to northern Europe.

The peoples of both Europe and North America independently consider this plant sacred and sweetgrass plays an important part in sacred ceremonies on both continents. The leaves are dried and made into braids and burned as a vanilla-scented incense, and used to make baskets which retain the vanilla-like scent for many years. Sweetgrass is a high-yielding grass, when fertilized, cultivated and managed, can produce up to 40,000 dried braids per acre.

Sweetgrass is also called Bison grass and zubrowka , plus there are many different names in the various native American languages , like we'nuskwûn in Menomini, or the Mamaceqtaw language from Wisconsin and Michigan (from Ethnobotany of the Menomini by H.H.Smith) and Wekusko by Canadian indigenous people. (>>>see the Seven Questions about sweetgrass , at the end of this web page).

OTHER GRASSES CALLED "SWEETGRASS" -- Please Note: There are several other species of grass that have been called "Sweetgrass" including a South Carolina grass (Muhlenbergia filipes), that is also used to make baskets, plus a shorter European weedy-grass that was planted in hay fields to give the cut hay a vanilla scent, called sweet vernal grass .

Our Sweetgrass (Hierochlöe odorata) has a vanilla scent, and has the long leaves are used to make dried braids and used to weave into baskets.

Also, the map below shows that there are other species of Sweetgrass, about 30 species of the Hierochlöe Sweetgrass that grow around the world , even in the tropics at high elevation, and on every continent including Antarctica. This means that Sweetgrass as a plant genus must have evolved during the time when all of the continents were together 100-300 million years ago. That makes the Genus Hierochloe "Living fossils" and evidence of a time when all the continents were together.

Sweetgrass or Hierochlöe species around the world. (Data from Index Kewensis). Obviously the original ancestor of all of these sweetgrass species evolved when all of the continents were together as one, called Pangaea, about 100-300 million years ago.

Sweetgrass is very aromatic, and when dried can be placed in closets, drawers, armoires, or with stored clothing, to give your clothes a fresh scent. Replace every 1-2 months.

The Mystery of the Sweetgrass on two continents. Sweetgrass is what is called a "circumpolar" plant, which means it grows in both the North American and European continents around the Arctic circle.

--- WORLD-WIDE SWEETGRASS LOCATION MAP and data, can be searched at the web site of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

There are at least two possibilities, how sweetgrass got to North America :
(1.) plants spread across both continents when Eastern North America and Europe were joined as a single continent, or (2.) live plants were carried in boats in prehistoric times from northern Europe to North America up the Saint Lawrence river to the Great Lakes region. A study of the sweetgrass genetics in the future, could give us an answer to this mystery.

Since plants do not normally produce viable seeds, it could only occur on both continents by these three methods.

Possible route from Europe to North America for sweetgrass , 11,000-15,800 years ago. (Globe from, map from Global Biodiversity Information Facility, route arrows by Craig Dremann)

Perhaps sweetgrass arrived in North America 11,000-15,800 years ago from Europe, with the Clovis or Folsom peoples, first introduced sweetgrass to Newfoundland and then planted around the Great Lakes. Genetic mapping of the North American sweetgrass populations may help trace back the peoples moving across the Atlantic, bring their live sweetgrass plants with them.

DNA USA: A Genetic Portrait of America , Bryan Sykes book published in 2012, chapter four "The Mystery of Cluster X" writes that geneticists have found indications of the same movement of people from Europe to the Great Lakes area through the mtDNA sequences of the Ojibwe people.

Rosaria Scozzari et al. wrote about this discovery in 1997 in "mtDNA and Y chromosome-specific polymorphisms in modern Ojibwa: implications about the origin of their gene pool." in American Journal of Human Genetics 60 (1): 241-244, along with the M.D. Brown et al 1998 article, "mtDNA haplogroup X: an ancient link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?" in American Journal of Human Genetics 63 (6): 1852-1861, and also see other Google Scholar articles on the same topic of mtDNA haplogroup X ).

That migration probably occurred when the northern Atlantic ocean was frozen solid during the Ice Ages, between 11,000 and 15,800 years ago, but perhaps the migration from Europe to the Great Lakes occurred as long ago as 36,000 years ago (Brown, 1998) from the human DNA evidence. And I am proposing that those people brought live sweetgrass plants with them, from Europe to North America, along with the Clovis spear points.

In any case, sweetgrass is the only sacred plant shared by peoples of both Europe and North America, and in Europe it is called Holy grass, and has dried leaves have been strewn on the floors of churches. In North America, sweetgrass is called "Hair of the Mother Earth" and is one of the four sacred herbs, which includes sage (Artemisia species and Salvia apiana), cedar and tobacco.

There's probably no truly "wild" sweetgrass populations in the world , because, most of the populations of the North American and European sweetgrass may have been "cultivated" and selected for the length of their leaves over the last 10,000+ years of human/sweetgrass interactions.

Of course there are wild stands growing in the wild , but when you take a careful look at those plants, they may actually be remnants of a "garden" within an ancient Native American village site, still growing where they were originally planted hundreds to thousands of years ago.

Sweetgrass plants have been selected by humans to be cut at least twice a year , otherwise the unusually long leaves can smother the plant. A similar form of human selection of another wild plant, to make a particular part of the plant grow unusually long, can be seen in the selection of the Saffron crocus , whose stigma is harvested for the spice "saffron." The saffron stigma is now so abnormally long, it hangs outside of the petals.

The other indicator that sweetgrass has had a close association with humans , is that it has lost its ability to normally produce viable seeds. Garlic and horseradish are like that, in that these plants do not bother to produce any seeds, since humans have been replanting them every year from roots or bulbs for thousands of years. Plants that are reproduced by humans by plant parts like roots or bulbs, instead of seeds, over thousands of years, stop bothering to produce viable seeds. The loss of viable seed production, is a good indicator of a plant's close association with humans for at least 5,000 year, or longer.

No studies of the genetics of the "wild" sweetgrass populations have yet been done , but I predict that when such a study is completed, then we will be able to follow the movement and travel of the sweetgrass plants in association with humans. Also, the mapping of the existing "wild" stands on North America will probably show that the plant is linked directly with ancient village sites, and has not extended itself very far outside of those villages.

You can see a mapping of some of the potential village sites in Colorado, using sweetgrass as the indicator at . The website shows sweetgrass location maps that were generated by the Herbarium at Colorado State. There is an example of one site, where sweetgrass was found in June, 1898 by C. Crandall in Conejos County, where US Highway 285 crosses the Conejos River, at Lat. 37.1012, Long -106.0067 , Elevation 7,799 ft.

The US highway Route 285 follows an ancient Indian trail, and the Conejos river is still considered one of the best fishing rivers in the Southwest, so the spot where sweetgrass was found in 1898--where an ancient trail crosses a river--may be a potential Indian village site where sweetgrass was originally planted.

When the Europeans first started plowing up the Native American sweetgrass beds , the plant was so common between 1800 and 1890 in parts of North America, sweetgrass was considered a weed by the farmers trying to sow a wheat crop in the middle of a thousand year old sweetgrass bed.

CHECKLIST for the very best sweetgrass:

1.) Organically grown vs wild-crafted . Most of the braids sold in the USA are wildcrafted braids, with no fertilization of the wild stands to keep them in a healthy condition. By insisting on organically grown material, that means someone was making sure to feed the plants that the sweetgrass braid was harvested from.

2.) Cut ends on braids instead of pulled . If you feel at the end of most wildcrafted braids, you may feel a rough dried bit at the end of a leaf. That is evidence of the leaves being pulled instead of cut, like pulling out our own hair instead of cutting it, and it severely damages the plants. Insist on cut-end braids instead of pulled braids.

3.) White braid ends instead of pink or purple . The pink or purple ends on some wildcrafted braids, means that those plants have been overharvested and never fertilized, to replace the nutrients that was taken away in the leaves when they were harvested. Insist on white braid ends, and never pink or purple.

Wildcrafted braid with two big problems, roots and pink.

4.) Reject cheap braids, and ask for the best. In the USA, we look for cheap braids, like $5-8 retail, which means the wholesale prices go as low as $1.80 wholesale. How can braids get produced at these low, low prices? Canadian prison labor is one answer, and another answer is by never buying the monthly bone meal, blood meal and liquid fish to feed the stands that are being harvested.

So if we ask for organically grown , and cut instead of pulled , and no pink or purple ends , plus no prison labor to produce them --that extra care and attention should be reflected in the price of the braids. Cheap braids are only a sign that humans along with the wild stands of sweetgrass are being exploited to produce those cheap prices, and the nutrients that were taken away in the harvested dried leaves, are not being replaced every year.

Planting the live sweetgrass root-plugs . When you first open your box containing your order, soak the roots for one minute in a bowl of water .

Then, plant them in eight-inch diameter plastic pots in potting soil , and keep in the shade for a week while they establish new roots. Move them into more and more sun, gradually over the next week's time. In the North and Northwest, they will need full sun and in the South, Southeast, Southwest and southern California, they will need afternoon shade.

Planting them first in shallow plastic pot , an "azalea pot" works well, which is a pot that is wider than it is deep, like eight inches across but only 4-6 inches deep. Do not use clay pots , because they dry out too fast.

Use a good commercial potting soil --BEST: Pure Coconut Coir, Fox Farm Ocean-Forest, Miracle Gro Cactus, Palm and Citrus potting mix, Miracle Gro Nature's Care, Redi-gro potting mix, and Supersoil potting mix.

NOT Recommended -- Miracle Gro's-- Indoor potting mix, Moisture Control, Orchid Mix, Performance Organics or Seed Starter Mix. Redi-Gro organic potting mix. DO NOT use any Kellogg brand potting soils.

Do not use a potting soil that contains polymer crystals, or add polymer crystals, as that can keep the soil too moist for the plants.

Mix organic fertilizers into the potting soil for each container, 1/4 cup of blood meal and 1/4 cup of bone meal to the potting soil, before you plant each plant.

This method of growing the plants in shallow containers helps them spread faster and make more leaf growth. The roots will spread horizontally and then grow upwards to make more shoots

About a month of growing in the pot, they will start to fill up the pot, then plant them out into the garden, spacing plants from one to three feet apart, or into a planter box, which we have a design for below.

CLICK HERE TO SEE PHOTOS from our month-by-month growing of a single plant. A single plant is shown, in an 8-inch diameter pot, with two foot long leaves, ready to harvest. Sweetgrass is easily grown in a pot or planter box.

REDWOOD SWEETGRASS PLANTER that you can build in 15 minutes.
Build your own redwood or cedar Sweetgrass Planter Box , in 15 minutes, is six feet long, which is the proper size for three to six plants, for less than $10 in materials. Click here for details and design information.

Planting six plants in this planter , then setting the planter box up on concrete blocks, is an easy way to grow those 36-40 inch long leaves for braids or baskets!

In search of the rare 45-inch long braid .
What is needed to produce the rarely seen 45-inch long braids? Two methods, one with a planter box, and the other method is to support the leaves off the ground.

Planter box method for producing the 45 inch long leaves, is to build the redwood or cedar sweetgrass planter box and put it up on blocks.

Plants growing in raised planter boxes, helps keeps the leaves off the ground. Also, it is a good idea to thin out the leaves periodically, so that light gets to all layers.

Add some support for leaves for plants in planter box on concrete block. Put a piece of lath under the planter box at both ends and on both sides of the box, extending a couple of feet outwards, and then place a 1 x 1 inch pole on top of the lath and drape the leaves so they are supported by the pole. These plants were planted in May and photographed mid-July and leaves are two feet long at this point.

Keeping the leaves off the ground, for plants in the soil.
When you are trying to grow the longest, most perfect leaves for baskets or braids, keeping the leaf tips off the ground will be the most important thing you do to achieve that goal. Leaf tips that drag on the ground, usually die and turn brown. For plants in the ground, we have heard that a Native American grandmother uses dowels and string.

Get two 3-foot long dowels and some string from the hardware store, and cut in half, so you have four 1.5 foot long pieces. I would use a type of string that does not stay wet, like nylon. Place dowels about 8 inches deep in the soil, about a foot away from the plant base in a square pattern and tie the string to the top of each dowel. Move the leaves so that they are suspended on the string, instead of dragging on the ground.

The results of our experiment , for plants in the planter box in May, the longest leaves were 30 inches by the end of July.

World's Longest Sweetgrass braid ? We are looking for the longest sweetgrass braids, with the current leader is a braid is 44.5 inches. Send in your record holder.

This current sweetgrass braid record holder , is a 44.5 inch long braid image sent in by Paul Tenser of Springville, New York, who bought the braid about five years ago, and it still has a wonderful scent. It is decorated with turquoise and pheasant feathers, and was purchased at the annual Veteran's powwow at the Seneca Nation in Salamanca, New York.

Vanne Mocilac of Montana grew 38-40 inch long braids from our Supershamanistic™ strain in 2012, that you can see on the Sweetstates web page .

LARGE-SCALE PLANTING , using weed stop fabric

ABOVE: A bed-layout for large-scale braid-harvesting.

The "Weed-barrier" fabric can be ordered from McConkey Company in Sumner, Washington, (800) 426-8124 and comes in 4 foot and 6 foot widths, and the rolls are 300 feet long.

The 2004 prices and shipping weights for this fabric was: 4 foot wide $55.32 and weighs 35 pounds, and the 6 foot wide $75.43 and 46 pounds, with UPS costs extra. This fabric lasts 15-20 years in coastal California, so is an excellent investment. You roll out the fabric and leave an eight-inch gap where the sweetgrass plants grow, between the rows of fabric.

You use the four feet wide fabric if you are going to grow two foot long braids, and the six foot wide fabric, if you are planning to harvest three foot long braids. Space the plants one foot apart in the row for two foot long braids, and two feet apart in each row to produce those world's record three foot long braids.

Depending on the spacing you use , the total number of plants will range from 3,500, 5,000, 7,000 or 11,000 plants per acre.

The Supershamanistic™ strain, if fertilized monthly, should be able to produce 40,000 braids per acre.

CHECK YOUR SOIL STRUCTURE! This is extremely critical to sweetgrass growing, and may contribute up to 80% towards your eventual success.

The garden area where the sweetgrass is to be planted, absolutely must be well-drained and not clayey . Check by digging the area up, watering it, and then the next day, take a hand full of soil in one hand, and squeeze it into a ball. When you open your hand, the ball should break up, at least a little bit , and not stay as a solid ball of clay. If it doesn't break up, add coarse sand and/or perlite until it does.

When growing in a container, DO NOT USE potting soil that contains polymer crystals , and do not add any polymer crystals to the potting soil, as it keep the soil too moist. Also, DO NOT ADD ANY SOIL FROM YOUR GARDEN to pots, including Michigan swamp soil.

Excessive compost can also be a very big problem , because when it breaks down, it can create waterlogged soil.

Sweetgrass is very, very fussy about having waterlogged roots , so we do not recommend adding fine compost to beds. It is better to add perlite , because that material always stays well-drained. You can add compost, but only add the coarse stuff that stays on top of a 1/8" mesh screen.

Below are three pictures, showing the varying effects of waterlogged soil on the plants and roots. Plants in photos were all planted at the same time, and show the severe effects of having waterlogged soil.

Totally waterlogged soil , few roots and only one stem per square inch.

Partially waterlogged soils , more roots and 4-10 stems per sq. inch

Perfect sweetgrass soil , thick root mass and more than 12 stems per sq. inch. Look at that dense root-mass---that is what you want to see.

WATERING should be done thoroughly, keeping plants constantly moist but not overwhelmingly wet. Never let the soil surface dry out completely, as dryness or drought is the major cause of death of a sweetgrass patch. The leaves will curl when the soil is getting excessively dry, and if still green, can revive with a thorough watering.

A Nelson water timer, the inexpensive sweetgrass survival insurance , for dry spells or when you are going away for a few days, or weeks or months, and you want to guarantee that your sweetgrass plants will not dry out.

For small beds, or for a few plants, a soaker hose hooked up to one of these times should work fine. We have used many different brands of timers over the 25 years of growing sweetgrass, and have settled on this model as being the easiest to use, and is rugged and well built.

FULL SUN is best for plants that are grown north of New Jersey, Iowa, Colorado, and central California. When growing in the South, Midwest, Southwest and southern California, we suggest keeping plants in part shade, especially in an area out of the afternoon sun from 3 P.M. onwards. Do not grow the plant indoors.

FERTILIZER is needed at least once a month during the growing season, but we do not recommend chemical fertilizers because they have the possibility of"burning" the plants.

We recommend using both bone meal and blood meal. Sweetgrass plants are heavy feeders, and fertilizing the plants is very important for growing into strong plants.

When you first plant your plants , if you are planting in pots, add two tablespoons each of blood meal and bone meal, and mix them into the potting soil before you plant your plants. Liquid fish fertilizers is also recommended, especially for a rapid green-up in the plants, at the rate of one cup of liquid fish per gallon watering can.

Repeat the blood meal, bone meal and liquid fish every month during the growing season, by scattering the dry fertilizers around each plant, use a watering can for in the liquid fish, and then watering in everything so you do not see any fertilizers on the soil surface.

When planting sweetgrass in a row, sprinkle one cup of bone meal per 6 foot row, which is long enough for 3-6 sweetgrass plants.

Then add one cup of blood meal per six foot row. Mix the fertilizers with the top 4-5 inches of the soil.

Plant your sweetgrass plants in the row , spacing each plant one to two feet apart.

And water plants with the liquid fish fertilizer , at the rate of one cup per gallon in watering can . We recommend the Alaska brand if you have a choice. This is very important to give the plants a rapid shot of nitrogen, whereas the blood meal is slower-release.

We do not recommend that you use any other organic fertilizers, other than blood meal, bone meal, liquid fish , potassium sulfate, diluted Liquid Ironite and Epson Salts.

Please do not use cow, horse, goat, bat guano, chicken or bunny manures, alfalfa meal, kelp meal, worm castings or fine compost .

Fine compost is especially bad for sweetgrass, because when the compost breaks down, it makes the soil too waterlogged for the sweetgrass roots to thrive well. However, coarse compost that stays on top of a 1/8" mesh screen may work well.

And please do not add any garden soil to your plants when grown in containers, and please never add any Michigan swamp soil either.

The plugs that we offer have been organically grown and not sprayed with any herbicides or fungicides. We fertilize with five pounds of blood meal and five pounds of bone meal per 100 square feet, every month during the growing season. We also use once a month, one cup of liquid fish fertilizer per gallon watering can for 50 square feet. Also, at least once a year, we add one pound of the mineral Potassium sulfate, also called Sulfate of Potash per 100 square feet, and one pound of Epson salts per 100 square feet, and one ounce of Liquid Ironite per 100 square feet diluted in a gallon of water.

We always apply the bone meal first, and since it is white, acts as a white background on the soil, so that the blood meal can be evenly sprinkled on top.

The plants will sometimes show when they have a need for the different fertilizers , for example when the leaves start turning yellow, adding iron and nitrogen in the form of blood meal, will usually cure that problem and green them back up within a week or two. Or liquid fish fertilizers can also help.

The lack of phosphorus , which is supplied by bone meal, can be clearly seen when several inches of the bases of the leaves or the leaf tips start turning purple , like in the photo of the Canadian wildcrafted braids show, below.

Showing when you need to fertilize with bone meal , when a purple color appears at the leaf base.

Dried wildcrafted braids shown above, with purple color at their root ends , showing mild and severe need for phosphorus, which is supplied by bone meal, and is cured by feeding the plants once a month. Notice that these braids were harvested by pulling out by the roots , which is not recommended--- instead cut them and leave a few inches of stem above the ground.

Wildcrafter's Sweetgrass Fertilizer Bag . For sweetgrass wildcrafters , I am suggesting that an organic fertilizer carrying bag could be made, that can be easily taken to the woods. For every hand full of sweetgrass that is harvested, I am recommending that a hand-full of a 50% bone meal and 50% blood meal mix, be sprinkled around each plant that leaves are harvested from.

Add IRONITE once a year. Sprinkle diluted LIQUID IRONITE around the plants 1-2 times a year, diluting one fluid ounce in a gallon of water. It has iron and important trace minerals like manganese, and helps take care of the massive need for iron that sweetgrass has. There is more iron in a sweetgrass leaf than we have in our own blood. Wear gloves when handling this material. This would be an excellent material to take when wildcrafting, and help the wild sweetgrass stands. Quick release, usually used for lawns and works great on sweetgrass.

EPSON SALTS once a year adds important magnesium to the plants. One pound sprinkled around the plants will fertilize 100 square feet.

POTASSIUM SULFATE, add once a year , one pound per 100 square feet. Do not confuse this fertilizer which is a white fine powder like sugar, with the stronger Potash or Muriate of Potash or Potassium chloride, which can burn your sweetgrass plants. The Potassium chloride is a much more common fertilizer and should never be used, but you can order a pound of the Potassium sulfate on Ebay if you cannot find it locally.

REFERENCE NUTRIENT LEVELS for SWEETGRASS LEAVES -- an example of the normal mineral levels of a healthy sweetgrass leaf .

If you are growing a large stand of sweetgrass, and you want to check the mineral levels of your leaves, you can compare them with our reference analysis below, that the Soil & Plant Lab in Santa Clara, California (408) 737-0330 ran for us.

Our reference level, is for healthy plants coming out of dormancy in March 2009 and April 2012, and were conducted on dried blades of sweetgrass and passing them through 40 mesh screen, and then testing for the levels of different elements.

Since this sweetgrass leaf mineral level data is from our own studies and tests (Lab No. 63461, 66742), we do not want to see this data posted on any other web sites, or incorporated into any other sweetgrass information anywhere, including by any educational institutions, or in any Federal or State government documents or web sites or on web servers:

Leaf Nutrient Reference Levels

Copyright © 2009, 2012 by Sue & Craig Dremann

Mid-March, healthy sweetgrass leaf analysis Nitrogen (N)

Sweetgrass requires a tremendous amount of iron , as you can see from the leaf analysis above, that is supplied by the blood meal and the Ironite mineral fertilizer . That is why it is very important to feed your plants monthly, with the bone meal, blood meal, and liquid fish, and 1-2 times a year with Ironite to keep them in tip-top health.

The harvesting of wild stands takes a huge amount of nutrients away from the plants when braids are harvested, and those critical nutrients need to be replaced. For example, for every 100 braids harvested (2.5 pounds dry weight), you remove the equivalent of about one ounce of blood meal. You can see why the wild stands, after decades of wildcrafting and not being fertilized, are in decline?

There are at least two reasons why you would want to mulch your sweetgrass plants: Severe winters in the north , or for protecting the roots of the plants where you have hot, dry summers, like in the Mid-west, Southwest and deserts.

Here are some mulches to AVOID : Hay or straw, cut grass, peat moss, fine compost or worm casting, tree leaves, oak leaves, and pine needles. In cold winter areas like Montana, bales of straw are being placed around their plants, but not on top. No straw or hay should be placed directly on top of plants, and that is to keep wheat, oats or other grass seedlings being introduced into your sweetgrass patch.

Mulches to TRY: Flat stones like flagstones, crushed rock, drain rock, big layer- chicken grit, bark mulch, mesquite charcoal, a layer of Perlite® or large chunky compost. How to make large chunky compost : sift you compost through a 1/2" mesh screen, and use the larger chunky material still on top of the screen.

Surface mulch can be critically important is hot, dry, low-humidity and windy summer areas like Texas, Oklahoma and the Southwest, to help keep the roots from drying out, so experiment with the different mulches. Flagstones, mesquite charcoal, or drain rock may be the best to conserve moisture and at the same time, keep the roots cool.

HARVESTING PLANTS. The plants we send you, should spread to cover at least one square foot in 12 months and up to two square feet by the end of the second season. You should be able to harvest, from one to eight braid's worth of sweetgrass per plant by the end of the first summer.

Please, do not harvest by pulling shoots up by the roots .
Use the rule-- "Don't uproot the shoots"

If you look at the wildcrafted Canadian braids, they have usually been pulled up by the roots. Harvesting by pulling up by the roots may be a quick way to harvest, but it stops the plant's ability to regrow quickly, whereas cut leaves will start regrowing immediately. Cut the leaves and keep about 2-3 inches of leaf stem above the ground.

Cutting leaves instead of pulling up by the roots, will allow the plants to regrow quickly , and it may be possible to get a second and third, and maybe even a fourth harvest, before autumn. We can get up to three cuttings a year from established plant: early May to mid June, early August, and September just before they go dormant. In summer, the plants grow one to three inches a day!

Harvest Experiment - Cutting vs. Pulling

Photo above shows sweetgrass regrowing two days after harvesting . In the case of the pulled plant, only a few spindly stems are seen regrowing. As far as we know, this is the first measured experiment ever conducted, to test how fast sweetgrass regrows when cut or pulled.

We started with six sweetgrass plants, each with 30 stems all at the same length, and on May 7, 2009, pulled the leaves by the roots from one plant, and cut the others at different lengths--- at ground level, one inch, two inches, three inches and four inches.

Two weeks later, a foot ruler on the left, showing the pulled plant on the left not regrowing yet. From left to right, the plants were pulled up by the roots, then the next was cut at ground level, cut at one inch, 2", 3" and 4", as shown by the white numbers on the pots.

The pulled plant may take six months or more to recover, so pulling the leaves instead of cutting when harvesting, looks like it can severely damage your plant and its ability to thrive. After two months, all the cut plants were large enough to harvest, while the pulled plant is still struggling to regrow.

The plants were started in 2-3/4 inch plastic pots, and transplanted into 4 inch pots as they grew.

While the pulled plant has struggling to regrown its original 30 stems , all of the cut plant by the end of July have added to their total number of stems that have regrown to 8 inches or more, after being harvested a second time: Plant originally cut at ground level = 64 stems , Plant cut at 1' = 36 stems, Plant cut at 2" =52 stems , Plant cut at 3" = 48 stems , and Plant cut at 4" = 78 stems .

Five weeks later, a one-foot ruler on the left, showing the pulled plant barely regrowing, compared to the plants that were cut at ground level, one inch, 2", 3" and 4".

Identifying a mushroom. (Pyrenees near Gavarnie, France) - Biology

Instrumentation is extensive - see

6/5/2014 15:29:01Lynn Fenstermaker[email protected]NevCANDRI, UNR and UNLVThe Universities of Nevada (Reno and Las Vegas) and the Desert Research Institute have collaborated with land owner agencies in Nevada to establish two elevational transects of monitoring stations collectively named the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). These basin-to-mountain top transects are located in the Sheep Range (located approx 35 km NNW of Las Vegas) and in the Snake Range (east central NV along the UT border approx 335 km NNE of Las Vegas). The primary purpose of NevCAN is to collect data for long-term assessment of climate variability and change and its impact on ecological and hydrological processes and function.

The Snake Range transect has eight monitoring stations beginning at an elevation of 1757 m on the west side of the range, peaking at 3358 m at the western subalpine site and ending at 1566 m on the eastern side of the range. The Snake Range transect encompasses several collaborating land holder agencies including: the Long Now Foundation, Bureau of Land Management, Great Basin National Park and the Nevada Land Trust.

The Sheep Range transect has four monitoring stations beginning at an elevation of 894 m and ending at 2274 m. All of the monitoring stations are located on land managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Some stations are co-located with Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites.

A consistent set of sensors are installed at each station to monitor precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and direction, incoming solar radiation, net radiation, relative humidity, barometric pressure, soil moisture and temperature at several depths. A webcam is mounted on each tower to provide real time assessment of site conditions as well as archival photographs to help assess plant phenology, snow depth and snow melt timing.

6/5/2014 19:19:00Kenichi UENO[email protected]JALPS networkNational university collaboration in central Japan

6/6/2014 0:18:47Bindhy Wasini Pandey[email protected]Department of Geography, Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of DelhiMonitoring through Data Collected on Common Property Resources, Livelihood Security, disaster management. Ecological Restoration, Conservation of Biodiversity through the protection of the Biosphere Reserves.
Interactions with experts, Research Scholars.
Uses of Internet connection for assessment and information.
Open Lecture series and Geo-forum of the Department. 199432.2700° N, 77.1700° E2186 meterIndiaRestricted data access (registration)E-Mail : [email protected]seasonalICIMODE, IHDP, GLOBE, GLP,MRI,, Anthroposphere, Biosphere/Ecosphere, GeosphereLand use, Natural resources, Pollution, Tourism, Urbanization, Adaptation, Resilience, Weather and Climate, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Forests, Animals, Landscapes, Soils, Snow and Ice, Floods, Hazards and Risk asessment.Accommodation, Library, Internet, food, Research, Guidance. Trekking, Training. Atal Bihari Bajpai Mountaineering Research Institute, Manali, India.
SHROT NGO, Uttarakhand, India.
UDGAM NGO, Uttarakhand India
VARDAN NGO, Uttarakhand India.
HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India.
Environmental Monitoring Society, (EMS) New Delhi, India
Natural Resorces Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Department of Geography, Kashmir University, Srinagar, India
G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Studies.

6/6/2014 12:17:50Jeff Holmquist[email protected]White Mountain Research CenterUniversity of California Los Angeles, Institute of the Environment and SustainabilityWhite Mountain Research Center (formerly White Mountain Research Station) is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, and the UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability.

WMRC operates three full-service field stations to support college-level instruction and research throughout the entire eastern Sierra Nevada region. The stations, forming an elevation gradient from Owens Valley high into the White Mountains, provide lodging, meals, labs, and work space to scientists and students from all over the country and world. See our facilities pages for more information. WMRC also maintains a small research hut on the summit of White Mountain Peak at 4342 m (14,242’). The geologic exposure, steep topography, high elevation, arid climate, and potential for winter access make the center uniquely valuable for scientific study and education.

Open from about June 1 – October 31 (weather and snow permitting). Crooked Creek Station is a beautiful log cabin style building, which now operates off grid by utilizing solar power. This station is located in the Bristlecone/Limber Pine Forest at 3090 m (10,150’) in the White Mountains. Crooked Creek is an ideal facility in which to teach field classes, conduct research, and to hold workshops and retreats. Housing is seasonal. CCR can sleep up to 50 people in dorms and cabins. It has an industrial kitchen and the WMRC cooks at Crooked Creek provide excel- lent meals. CCR has wireless internet, a small computer room, four dry labs and an outdoor campfire pit.

Open from about June 1 - October 31 (weather and snow permitting), Barcroft Station was constructed in 1951 at an elevation of 3800 m (12,470') in the White Mountains. Barcroft can house up to 25 people in comfortable dorms. It has a full kitchen with excellent meals provided. Three labs are available for visiting research scientists and their students, and the station has wireless internet access. Upstairs in the main building is a classroom/living room area and recreational facilities. The station has been the site of much research in the physiological effects of high elevation, and was also used for a decade by Noble laureate, George Smoot, for research in cosmic background radiation. The Barcroft Station is off-grid and most power is generated from rooftop solar photovoltaic panels.

6/9/2014 14:57:46Alejandra Arce Indacochea[email protected]Chirapaq Ñan InitiativeInter-institutional PlatformThe Chirapaq Ñan Initiative was launched in 2012 with the objective of systematically monitoring high native potato diversity and the conservation status of native potato landraces over time and in their natural environment (in situ). Chirapaq Ñan means “Rainbow Route” in the quechua language of the Peruvian Central Andes. Like a rainbow, it spatially connects diverse sites, forming a network of custodian farming communities, public, private and international institutions that are the stakeholders and function across the different microcenters. The microcenters are geographical areas characterized by present-day high and unique diversity of native varieties. The different microcenters complement each other due to their distinct diversity. They were selected and included in the Chirapaq Ñan Initiative according to the following criteria: (i) distribution range of cultivated species, (ii) varieties’ degree of endemism, (iii) geographical distance between microcenters, (iv) linguistic and cultural diversity within and between microcenters, (v) local interest and presence of national partners able to take the lead in the initiative, (vi) presence of factors that threaten conservation.

In addition to farming communities, municipalities, regional governments and smallholder farming families, the initiative is currently made up of more than 12 partners that hold the same rights and institutional responsibilities. They include: Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA), Perú Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chile el Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal (INIAF), Bolivia Fundación PROINPA, Bolivia Universidad Nacional de Huancavelica (UNH), Perú Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Chile Programa de Desarrollo Local (PRODESAL), Chile Grupo Yanapai, Perú Centro Andino de Educación y Promoción JMA (CADEP), Perú Instituto de Investigación para el Desarrollo (IRD), Bolivia and the International Potato Center (CIP).

6/11/2014 8:13:37Houet & Le Roux & Galop[email protected]OHM VicdessosCNRS INEE & Université de ToulouseIn the Pyrenees, the OHM Haut Vicdessos focus its efforts in a mountain area subject to a strong human abandonment since the second half of the twentieth century. The study area covers seven municipalities located in the upper valley of Vicdessos Ariège, from the heart of the valley until 3000m asl. Impacted by an intense mining, metallurgical and agropastoral pressure for more than a millennium, this valley is now the place of a process of abandonment, marked by the final stop of any industrial activity, and with the development of tourism and new activities.200942°45དྷ''N 1°28ཬ''E1000 m aslFranceRestricted data access (registration)[email protected]it depends on the variablesRéseau des OHMAnthroposphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere/Ecosphere, HydrosphereLand use, Natural resources, Pollution, Economy, Tourism, Urbanization, Policy, Adaptation, Resilience, Weather and Climate, Deposition, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Plants, Forests, Animals, Invasive species, Landscapes, Soils, Nutrient cycle, Water cycle, Freshwater systems, Snow and Ice, Floods, Paleo recordsmultisite observatories.
continuous monitoring of snow cover on a high mountain valley
continuous monitoring a small watershed

For details see the GLORIA field manual at:

6/24/2014 18:30:45Thomas Spiegelberger[email protected]Alps LTER Irstea GrenobleMountain areas have a wide variety of ecological systems and human activities (agro-sylvo-pastoralism, tourism, hunting, etc.). The climate, economic and societal changes raise questions about the response of biological diversities, the adaptation of production systems, and more generally the various uses of mountain areas including agriculture, tourism and the natural components of the landscape.
The primary research topic of this LTER is mountain ecosystems. The study area is located near the cities of Grenoble and Chambéry. It covers two national parks (Ecrins and Vanoise), two regional nature parks (Vercors and Massif des Bauges) and several natural reserves.

This LTER carries out research on diversity and Alpine ecosystem functioning and services in the context of climate change and changes in mountain territories. The research relies on a network of long-term observation sites and on the experimental ecological platform in the "Joseph Fourie"’ Alpine Station located at the Lautaret pass. Research is conducted in close consultation with land managers.

6/30/2014 17:00:31Georg Wohlfahrt[email protected]NeustiftUniversity of InnsbruckEddy covariance flux tower above managed mountain grassland. Focus is on trace gas exchange with past/ongoing measurements of exchange of CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, CO, various volatile organic compounds, gaseous elemental mercury. since 200147°07´N, 11° 19´E970 m aslAustriaFree data access, seasonal, daily, hourlyLTER, FLUXNETAtmosphere, Biosphere/Ecosphere, HydrosphereLand use, Pollution, Weather and Climate, Deposition, Ecosystems, Plants, Nutrient cycle, Water cyclepermanent electrical power
climatized instrument hut
eddy covariance
general meteorological measurements

6/30/2014 20:23:21Mark Williams[email protected]Niwot Ridge LTERUniversity of Colorado-BoulderNiwot Ridge is located approximately 35 km west of Boulder, Colorado, with the entire study site lying above 3000 m elevation. There is a cirque glacier (Arikaree Glacier), extensive alpine tundra, a variety of glacial landforms, glacial lakes and moraines, cirques and talus slopes, patterned ground, and permafrost. The research area is bounded on the west by the Continental Divide, with runoff on the two sides being destined for the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers.

7/2/2014 17:01:56Nikolaus Schallhart[email protected]Alpine Research Centre ObergurglUniversity of InnsbruckThe Alpine Research Centre Obergurgl connects interdisciplinary research tradition with current dynamic research activity. The focus concentrates on environmental and climatologic sciences, cultural, economical and historical research as well as studies about sociological aspects in the high mountain regions for scenario modeling.

It is an important field station of the Innsbruck University (research focus: Alpine Space - Man and Environment) and furthermore an important site within the national and international platform LTER/LTSER (Long-term Ecosystem Research, Long-term Socio-economic and Ecosystem Research), as part of the LTER region Tyrolean Alps.

Aims and offers of the Alpine Research Centre Obergurgl:

Support for researchers
Cooperation buildup and funding of interdisciplinary research initiatives
Research activities and monitoring at different long-term research sites

2. Infrastructure for researchers, courses and conferences

The Alpine Research Centre offers perfect basic conditions for scientific courses, excursions and conferences. Guest researchers and students are invited to use the opportunity to combine research and education with fieldwork in the Central Alps. We support researchers and students with accomodation and additional facilities such as a laboratory, lecture rooms, and a library). For reservation of guestrooms or other facilities please contact the University Center Obergurgl.

3. Service: lectures and excursions

As far as personally and temporally possible the team of the Alpine Research Centre provides know-how and expertise.

The following services are currently offered:

Excursion guides
Advanced trainings

In case of interest please contact Nikolaus Schallhart!

4. Information infrastructure

2000, first Monitoring programmes in the region since

7/3/2014 2:34:58Alice Chung-MacCoubrey[email protected]Sierra Nevada NetworkNational Park Service, Inventory & Monitoring ProgramThe Sierra Nevada Network (SIEN) includes four National Park Service units on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in California: Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), which are two units managed together by one Superintendent, Yosemite National Park (YOSE), and Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO). The network spans a wide elevational range from 400 to 4,417 meters, encompasses both Mediterranean and Boreal
climates, and thus supports diverse assemblages of plants and animals. More than 90 percent of network park lands are designated wilderness. The SIEN is designing and implementing a long-term monitoring program to measure key indicators of ecological integrity, or “vital signs”. Six monitoring projects are being implemented, encompassing ten vital signs these projects include: 1) lakes water chemistry, 2) high-elevation forests, 3) birds, 4) wetlands, 5) river hydrology, and 6) climate reporting.since 200736.6N, 118.8W700-13000 ft mslUnited StatesFree data access, contact [email protected]yearlyNational Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program (NPS I&M)Biosphere/Ecosphere, HydrosphereNatural resources, Weather and Climate, Deposition, Biodiversity, Plants, Forests, Animals, Invasive species, Water cycle, Freshwater systems, Snow and IceWe have 2 permanent field station/office at two national parks, but our monitoring work occurs elsewhere in the national parks. To support our operations, we have 2 year-round vehicles, 2 seasonal vehicles, and access to pack stock or helicopters for equipment transportation. Climate and river hydrology data are from existing stations, most of which are operated by other agencies. Most of our monitoring equipment is carried by foot into the field and monitoring occurs at randomly located, spatially distributed plots/sites.The Institute for Bird Populations- bird monitoring
U.S. Geological Survey- forest research & streamgage monitoring
NPS- Klamath I&M Network and Upper Columbia Basin I&M Network

7/7/2014 4:29:04Dan Lambert[email protected]Mount Mansfield Science and Stewardship Center (proposed)University of Vermont, Vermont Center for Ecostudies, Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Mount Mansfield CompanyMount Mansfield is a northern Appalachian mountain located at 44.5° N latitude, 72.8° W longitude in Vermont (USA). With a summit elevation of 1,339 m, it is the state’s highest peak, capped by approximately 81 ha or alpine vegetation and flanked by extensive montane fir-spruce, northern hardwoods, and a system of alpine ski trails. A 161-km2 state forest surrounds a University of Vermont Natural Area (161 ha), and a four-season recreational resort. Since 1955, researchers at this site have amassed a voluminous scientific record spanning the earth, atmospheric, and ecological sciences. Continuous, decades-old records exist in the areas of meteorology, wet deposition chemistry, forest health, plant and animal ecology, streamflow, and water chemistry. Long-term soil and alpine zone monitoring began 12 and 10 years ago, respectively. With coordination by the Vermont Monitoring Cooperative, these datasets have been used to model various dimensions of the mountain’s ecosystem, often in combination with records collected from other high-elevation sites in the northeastern US and southeastern Canada. A number of collaborators have recently proposed to establish the Mount Mansfield Science and Stewardship Center within a vacant building at the top of a toll road that reaches the ridgeline.

The Mansfield Center’s mission is to promote the health of northeastern mountain ecosystems by catalyzing collaborative science and stewardship on Mount Mansfield. The foundation for this work consists of: a modern mountain field station a long-term ecological and meteorological record a tradition of information sharing and regional networking and a commitment to science-based environmental policy and natural resource management.

• Advance interdisciplinary research and long-term monitoring of mountain ecosystems and changes affecting mountain flora and fauna
• Develop, implement, and demonstrate stewardship actions that will lead to improved conservation of mountain environments from a local to global scale.
• Provide place-based education and outreach on mountain ecology, conservation issues, and stewardship.

7/7/2014 20:58:11Martha Apple[email protected]GLORIA US-PIOMontana TechGLORIA stands for Global Observational Research Initiative in Alpine Environments. It is a global network for monitoring temperatures and the responses of alpine plants to climate change. The US-PIO GLORIA site is in southwestern Montana, USA and was established in 2008.200845.49° N, 112.48°W2865 amslUnited StatesRestricted data access (registration) year intervalsGLORIABiosphere/EcosphereWeather and Climate, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Plants, Snow and IceThe US-PIO observatory is accessible by foot during the summer season, has no electrical power, and has data loggers that record temperature on an hourly basis. Trampling of the alpine plants is limited because there is no definite established trail to these US-PIO GLORIA summits.RAPT - Researching Alpine Plant Traits

7/18/2014 15:35:21Christopher Andrews[email protected]ECN CairngormCentre for Ecology & HydrologyThe Cairngorms UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) site is situated in the Invereshie and Inshriach National Nature Reserve, within the Cairngorms National Park, and covers some 10 km2 of pine forest, dry heaths, mires and alpine vegetation including moss and lichen heaths on the highest ground. ECN is the UK’s long-term environmental monitoring and research programme and makes regular measurements of air, soil, water, and a range of animals and plants across a network of sites to determine how and why the natural environment is changing (see for more information).
1999 in current form57°07’ N, 03°49’ W330-1111 maslUKFree data access, seasonal, monthly, daily, hourlyGLORIA, ECN, INTERACT, LTSER, LTER- EuropeAnthroposphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere/Ecosphere, HydrosphereLand use, Natural resources, Pollution, Tourism, Resilience, Weather and Climate, Deposition, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Plants, Forests, Animals, Snow and IceAccess is available year round but there are no facilities on site. Access is on foot only from a trailhead accessible by car (it is not serviced by public transport).

Permanent instrumentation on site for recording environmental data, snow cover, phenology and fauna.

7/19/2014 18:01:02Tom Giambelluca[email protected]HaleNetUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHaleNet: The Haleakalā Climate Network, Maui, Hawai‘i

In June 1988, the first stations in the HaleNet climate network were established on the leeward slopes of Haleakalā Volcano with the installation of three climate observing stations at elevations of 950 1650 and 2120 m. With two additional leeward stations, the network was extended to the Haleakalā summit in 1990. Two years later, stations were added on the windward slope. Eventually, 11 sites were established, eight of which are currently in operation. The longest running HaleNet stations have been recording microclimate data for more than 25 years. The data collected at these stations include measurements of net and solar radiation, air temperature, infrared surface temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, wind direction, soil temperature, soil heat flux, and soil moisture. Derived variables include potential evapotranspiration, and vapor pressure.

HaleNet has proved highly useful in support of conservation efforts on Haleakalā and for research on the influences of climate on high elevation tropical ecosystems. Numerous studies have utilized HaleNet data to better understand the climate of high mountain slopes in Hawai‘i, estimate rates of evapotranspiration, analyze climate variability and long-term trends in temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, and other variables, to help design programs to control invasive species, and to determine the underlying causes of decline in an important high elevation native plant.
HaleNet currently serves as a model for the development of a statewide climate monitoring system. But continuing financial support for the system is never certain. The biggest challenge now is to transition HaleNet and other climate monitoring networks in Hawai‘i from a project-based funding regime to more sustainable, institutional base support.

7/19/2014 21:25:19Tino Johansson[email protected]CHIESAInternational Center of Insect Physiology and EcologyThe Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services and Food Security in Eastern Africa (CHIESA) is a four-year research and development project aimed at increasing knowledge on the impacts of climate change on ecosystem services in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH).

CHIESA is funded by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, and coordinated by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) in Nairobi, Kenya.

Through research and training, CHIESA will build the capacity of research communities, extension officers and decision makers in environmental research, as well as disseminate adaptation strategies in regard to climate change. The general areas for environmental research are in agriculture, hydrology, ecology and geoinformatics.

CHIESA's implementing agency is icipe, with coordination among four universities in Africa and Europe. Together, these institutions carry out activities within eight distinct work packages, and oversee participation of 22 stakeholder institutions.

CHIESA activities focus on three mountain ecosystems in Eastern Africa, namely Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, the Taita Hills in Kenya and Jimma Highlands in Ethiopia. The project consortium monitors weather, detects land use/land cover change, and studies biophysical and socio-economical factors affecting crop yields and food security.

The project also builds the climate change adaptation capacity of East African research institutions, stakeholder organizations and decision-makers through research collaboration and training. Together with local communities, the project will develop, test and disseminate climate change adaptation tools, options and strategies at the farm level.

7/19/2014 22:34:57Chris Hergarten[email protected]Learning LandscapesMSRI / UCAThe Learning Landscapes program is a new research and monitoring project initiative for the Naryn area in Kyrgyzstan developed by the Mountain Societies Research Institute (MSRI), University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan.
The idea is driven by the need to improve people's lives through gaining a better understand of how people make decisions. The question how research-generated knowledge is (or is not) used in (adaptive) decision-making processes at household, community and various government administrative levels takes thereby a center stage.
The two main goals of the Learning Landscapes program are:
- To conduct long-term, application-focused research and monitoring in and on these systems in collaboration with local organizations and other stakeholders and
- To establish demonstration and experimentation sites that future UCA faculty may use for research and place-based experiential education and that community members and organizations may use for learning purposes.
201476.432°N, 41.5°E

7/20/2014 0:13:27Manuel Peralvo[email protected]Andean Study LandscapesCONDESANThis observatory will implement a set of study landscapes in the Andean region based upon previous work of CONDESAN under the umbrella of regional monitoring networks (GLORIA, iMHEA, Red de Bosques Andinos). The goal is to develop and implement an integrative monitoring protocol to characterize links between biodiversity, carbon and other relevan ecosystem processes under the context of climate change and land use and land cover change.20050 deg N, ྊ.7 deg W1850EcuadorFree data access of time scales (minutes to years)GLORIA, Andean Forests, et al.Anthroposphere, Biosphere/Ecosphere, Hydrosphere, GeosphereLand use, Economy, Resilience, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Forests, LandscapesA combination of on the ground sensors arranged along altitudinal and land use gradients, remote sensing data and data management infrastructure.INSTITUTO DE ECOLOGÍA REGIONAL - UNIVERSIDAD DE TUCUMÁN
Fondo para la Protección del agua de Quito, Ecuador – FONAG
Instituto de Montaña, Perú – IM.
The Nature Conservancy, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú – TNC
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín – UNALMEED
Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito, Ecuador – EP
The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Londres, Inglaterra – IMPERIAL

8/14/2014 13:18:11Tacham Walter Ndam[email protected]NonUniversity of Bamenda and The Environment and Rural Development FoundationThe lebialem highlands is situated along the Mount Cameroon chain rich in endangered flora and fauna. It is a conservation hot spot to conserse the threatened and endangered cross river gorilla and several plant species.
Recent ethnobotanical studies show that anthropological and land use systems coupled with modern lifestyle is causing the gradual loss of indigenous knowledge and destruction of water catchment cites.

1/22/2015 10:03:28Elena E. Timoshok[email protected]Mountain glacier basin AktruIMCES SB RAS (RUSSIA)This basin is privmary observatory of Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems.
Glacier basin Aktreu provides a lot of opportunities for studies of monitoring because of its high ecosystem and ladscape diversity and relatively low human-related disturbance level.
Basin has cold and humid climate and contains
1)unique for Altay old siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica) forests which have 500+ years old trees, priceless for dendroclimatological studies and suitable for monitoring of most stable type of plant communities which survived Little Ice Age.
2) Typical for Altay siberian Larch forests, which provide opportunity of monitoring of typical for Altay plant communities
3) Developing ecosystems on moraines and fluvioglacial deposits
4) Upper treeline amd forest line in the forest-tundra ecotone and bottom forest line several kms below basin on the edge of the forest and steppe.
Basin had meteorological stations which was functioning between 1960s and 1990s
SInce the 2014 basin has automatical meteorologica station, supported by IMCES SB RAS.

1/23/2015 17:41:45Maria B García[email protected]Ordesa and Monte Perdido National ParkOAPN - CSICORDESA AND MONTE PERDIDO NATIONAL PARK

The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (OMPNP) lies in the Southern slopes of the Central Pyrenees (Huesca province, Aragón). It is in bounded to the north by the French border (Gavarnie and Estubé valleys) and includes different municipalities: Torla, Fanlo, Tella-Sin, Puértolas and Bielsa (besides Broto if the buffer area is considered).

The PNOM comprises 4 deep valleys occupying 15.608 ha: Ordesa (Arazas river), Añisclo (Bellós river), Escuaín (Yaga river) and the upper part of Pineta (Cinca river). The peripheral part spreads over 19.679 ha more, and extends along parts of other valleys: Bujaruelo (the Ara river), Vió, Puértolas (Airés canyon), the medium reaches of Pineta valley, and La Larri.

The ice and the water constitute the main eroding agents responsible for the landscape: glaciar valleys (U shape), river valleys (V shape), deep canyons, mountain lakes… Despite most of the park is dominated by the alpine belt and subalpine grasslands, the impressive orography creates a mosaic of small areas covered by contrasted ecological systems: deep valleys, different kind of forests, very large rocky walls, canyons, screes, sunny and shady areas. Such environmental heterogeneity promotes a high diversity (for example more than 1400 plant species) and singularity (many endemic plants, some restricted to the Park), as a consequence of specific adaptations.

Two particular geomorphological processes are noticeable in the park: glaciar and periglacial processes and karstic dynamics. In the northern slopes of the Marboré, Cilindro and Monte Perdido, several ice masses in different state of conservation and dynamics occur. The Monte Perdido ice masses are the only one that can be considered as glaciers and they are composed of two separate bodies that have been greatly reduced during the last decades. Periglacial processes (polygonal soils) are still active in the high altitudes. Because of the carbonate nature of the bedrock, karstic processes are very active in the Park and are the main control of its hydrogeology.

1/23/2015 19:37:32Veerle Vanacker[email protected]LlavircayUniversidad de CuencaSet of 5 paired micro-catchments in highly degraded region. Monitoring of hydrometeorological data (precipitation, discharge) and solid and solute riverine fluxes. Characterization of land use change (multi-temporal land use maps), and key soil parameters. Also analysis of land use and agricultural systems, and characterisation of main livelihood strategies from household interviews.

1/23/2015 19:59:05Elise Osenga[email protected]Roaring Fork Observation NetworkAspen Global Change InstituteThe Roaring Fork Observation Network currently consists of 4 soil moisture and weather monitoring stations located at multiple elevations within the Roaring Fork Valley (RFV of Colorado.

1/26/2015 12:16:22Giorgio Matteucci[email protected]ABR-1 Collelongo Selva Piana IT-ColNational Research Council of Italy - Institute of Agroenvironmental and Forest BiologyThe research site was established in 1991 by the Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI) of Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy) in the framework of the CNR-RAISA project (1991-1995). DISAFRI carries on research activities from 1991 until 2004. From July 2004, the research station is managed by the Institute of Agroenvironmental and Forest Biology of the National Research Council. Research activities have been performed in the framework of several national (CNR Strategic Project on Mountain Forests, 1995-1997 CONECOFOR, 1997-2011) and European Union funded project (EUROFLUX, CANIF and ECOCRAFT, 1996-1998 LTEEF-II, 1998-2000 FORCAST and CarboEuroflux, 2000-2002 MefyQue, 2001-2004 CarboEurope 2004-2008, FutMon 2009-2011). Currently, activities are carried on within a national project on monitoring of forest ecosystems (Conecofor) and some european project (FP7 GHG-Europe, LIFE+ EnvEurope and ManFor C.BD.)

micrometeorological sensors (inside and outside the forest), data loggers, eddy covariance instrumentation and other sampling devices available. Walk-up tower (26 m). Mountain cabin available close to the site

Current research topics
Structure, dynamics and silviculture of beech forest, ecosystem level carbon and water vapour fluxes, soil chemistry, net primary productivity, leaf area index, soil respiration, nitrogen cycling, hydrological cycle, vegetation studies, crown conditions, leaves chemistry, stem growth, atmospheric wet deposition, ozone, climate, phenology, biodiversity indicators

Collected data
Structure, dynamic, ecology and silviculture of beech forests since 1991-2 net primary productivity, stem growth and beech ecophysiology since 1992 net ecosystem exchanges in 1993 and continuously since 1996 soil respiration from 1994 to 1998, 2007-2008 litter production and leaf area index since 1992, litter decomposition 1996-2001 monitoring data (CONECOFOR) since 1995/7 soil carbon dynamics since 1997 databases: basic and by research topics.


Pines have expanded their ranges in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere during the Anthropocene. For example, native P. contorta has expanded by invading high-altitude meadows in many parts of the western United States and P. ponderosa has established in forest–grassland ecotones in Colorado, USA (Rundel et al., 2014 ). Pine plantations now cover huge areas outside the native range of the genus in the Southern Hemisphere, where they are planted mostly for timber and pulp. There are about 2 million ha of P. radiata plantations in Chile and 1.2 million ha of P. taeda in Brazil (Nuñez et al., 2017 Simberloff et al., 2010 ). Invasive pines are largely Diploxylon taxa, belonging to lineages that were good colonizers in the past (Gallien et al., 2016 ). Climate could be an important determinant for predicting the potential area that could be invaded by pines, but expansion and invasion of pines in introduced ranges are also mediated by seed predation, propagule pressure, mycorrhiza, and competition with resident species in recipient communities (Nuñez & Medley, 2011 Nuñez, Simberloff, & Relva, 2008 Richardson, 2006 Richardson & Bond, 1991 Richardson et al., 1994 ). Human activities such as altered fire regimes, construction activities, altered land-use practices, establishment of plantations, manipulation of natural ecosystems, alteration of soil biota through species reshuffling, and anthropogenic pollution exert negative impacts on certain pines by reducing their range and dominance (Richardson et al., 2007 ). Below, we discuss that in addition to the adaptations to fire and extreme environments that drove pine diversification and spread in the Late Cretaceous, fire characteristics, mycorrhizal associations, ecosystem processes, biogeographicalevolutionary advantages, and diverse human activities are now interacting in complex ways to mediate pine dynamics (Figure 3).

3.1 Fire as a facilitator of pine expansion and invasion

The extraordinary potential of pines to establish and spread following fire and to alter fire regimes has helped them to dominate globally (Raffaele, Nuñez, Enestron, & Blackhall, 2016 ). Fire-adapted traits of pines that helped them to survive and spread in the Late Cretaceous during angiosperm emergence continue to facilitate their spread in the Anthropocene (Figure 3). Flammable long needles of P. palustris exert huge impacts by increasing the temperature and extending the long periods of heat, which negatively affect other trees in pine savanna (Ellair & Platt, 2013 ). The question is whether fire-adapted pines exploit fire as an ecological driver for their survival and spread (thereby being effectively “passengers of change”) or whether they utilize fire in a novel way to gain dominance (thereby “driving change”).

Fire, a key ecological disturbance, facilitates the spread of pines in their nonnative ranges (Franzese & Raffaele, 2017 ). Invasive pines can alter spread, severity, flammability and frequency of fire, and fuel loads (Mandle, Bufford, Schmidt, & Daehler, 2011 Paritsis et al., 2018 Taylor et al., 2017 ). Fire-adapted invasive pines exert positive feedbacks on fire, and fire in turn can stimulate pine regeneration (Baker, 2009 Richardson & Cowling, 1992 ). Although some communities are resilient to invasion of pines followed by fire (Nuñez & Raffaele, 2007 ), other communities can be replaced with fire-adapted communities as a consequence of the invasion of fire-adapted pines. Taylor et al. ( 2017 ) studied the positive feedbacks between fire and P. contorta invasion in Argentina, Chile, and New Zealand. Dense P. contorta stands have massive fire loads which result in severe fires and intense soil heating which favors P. contorta regeneration but hinders regeneration of fire-sensitive native Patagonian trees. Severe fires in P. contorta stands eliminate herbaceous cover, thereby reducing competition which favors P. contorta whose seedlings are susceptible to competition with grasses (Taylor et al., 2017 ). Positive fire–pine feedbacks help to understand the role of fire in the invasion of pines in the Southern Hemisphere.

Fire may also be a driver of range contraction of certain pines. Pinus nigra is reported to be sensitive to intense fires and lacks traits such as serotiny this allows the expansion of oak woodlands into forests once dominated by P. nigra (Morales-Molino et al., 2017 ). Pinus palustris was historically dominant on the coastal plains of the southeastern United States (Chandler, 2014 ), but currently covers only about 2% of its original range (Means, 1996 ). Human-assisted fire may play a key role in degrading Haploxylon pine forests (Chandler, 2014 ). Stralberg et al. ( 2018 ) predicted that most of Alberta's natural regions in Canada are likely to be converted into deciduous woodlands and grasslands within a century. They argued that rising summer temperatures and reduced soil moisture, which lengthens the wildfire season, are key drivers of vegetation change in the boreal forests of Alberta.

3.2 Life-history and functional traits

Pines often form monocultures, both in their native and nonnative ranges, and exert varied impacts in invaded ecosystems such as dramatic alterations to fire and hydrological regimes, changed soil nutrients, and aboveground and belowground communities (Nuñez et al., 2017 Simberloff et al., 2010 ). The causes of species monodominance vary between habitats. Mycorrhizal associations play an important role in the species monodominance in tropical forests (Corrales, Mangan, Tuner, & Dalling, 2016 Peh, Lewis, & Lloyd, 2011 ). In this section, we discuss briefly the impact of adaptation/traits in pines, ecosystem process, mutualistic associations, and biogeographical advantages in the current rising dominance of pines in many parts of the world.

Pines have various physiological traits and adaptations that have allowed them to survive in extreme environments, for example, under drought conditions. The ability of pines to close stomata at relatively higher (less negative) water potential enables them to survive in dry habitats (Singh, Zobel, Garkoti, Tewari, & Negi, 2006 ). Since pine seeds are desiccation-tolerant, their regeneration is less affected by drought. Pines also need not use evaporative cooling to regulate leaf temperatures they can afford to close their stomata on hot and dry days (Waring & Schlesinger, 1985 ). Native fire-intolerant oaks (e.g., Quercus laevis) facilitate the establishment of newly germinated seedlings of fire-adapted P. palustris in the xeric sites of southeastern United States (Loudermilk et al., 2016 ). Adults of P. palustris are not sensitive to drought because they are capable of hydrolytic lift but adult pines have high fire loads which results in severe fire which is often detrimental to young pine seedlings (Espeleta et al., 2004 Grace & Platt, 1995 Taylor et al., 2017 ). Litter build-up by P. palustris helps to retain water and improve nutrient availability (Harrington, 2006 ). Although P. palustris has a grass stage that lasts up to 20 years, its 1- to 2-year-old seedlings are sensitive to drought (Loudermilk et al., 2016 ). The establishment and early growth of P. palustris seem to be facilitated by oaks (Loudermilk et al., 2016 ). Quercus laevis, a native midstorey oak and often associated with P. palustris, can facilitate pine seedling growth and survival by hydrolytic lift, thereby acting as a nurse plant (Loudermilk et al., 2016 ). Species such as Q. rubra, which occurs in mixed forests with P. banksiana, is fire-tolerant and is better adapted to xeric conditions than pines due to root sprouting. Pines, however, outcompete oaks due to their vigorous postfire recruitment and eventually attain greater heights and thus overshadow the shorter statured oak (Frelich, Reich, & Peterson, 2017 ). A better understanding of positive interactions between fire-intolerant natives and fire-tolerant pines or between fire and pines is needed to design effective management strategies.

Expansion and invasion of pines may be limited until the onset of favorable conditions. A time lag in the invasion of pines following fire could be due to lack of mycorrhizae or absence of vegetation (Nuñez et al., 2009 , 2013 Raffaele et al., 2016 Richardson et al., 1994 ). Dovčiak, Frelich, and Reich ( 2005 ) studied the two-phased invasion of P. strobus (white pine) into drought-prone and nutrient-poor old fields with oak savanna in the north-central United States. The first phase of P. strobus expansion occurred during a period of favorable climate, which allowed pines to establish in shaded forest edges. A second phase occurred about 5 years later when high precipitation and cooler conditions facilitated the spread of P. strobus into open fields devoid of trees. These authors identified three successional pathways in P. strobus expansion, first, slow and creeping spreading of P. strobus with low seed rain into shaded forest edges, and second, abundant seed rain which facilitates rapid P. strobus expansion. In the third pathway, no or very little expansion occurs due to low seed rain and lack of shade conditions, which allows grasses to establish. This study illustrates the importance of seed rain, shade, and climate in P. strobus colonization. Invasion of P. contorta in Chilean Patagonia resulted in the selection of shade-tolerant species with conservation of reproductive traits such as heavier seeds, epizoochorous seed dispersal, higher plant height, and different fruit types (Bravo-Monasterio, Pauchard, & Fajardo, 2016 ).

3.2.1 Ectomycorrhizal associations

Ectomycorrhizal associations are important mediators of pine establishment and spread in native and nonnative ranges (Nuñez et al., 2009 ). EM trees experience positive feedbacks under canopies of their conspecifics, but AM trees experience negative feedbacks in soil beneath conspecifics (Bennett et al., 2017 ). Positive feedbacks to EM trees could be due to the ability of EM to channel nitrogen to their host in nitrogen-poor soils compared to AM (Corrales et al., 2016 ). Ectomycorrhizal fungi produce N-degrading enzymes that give them greater access to organic N compared to AM fungi (Nashölm et al., 1998 Read & Perez-Moreno, 2003 ), thus enabling pines to access organic N. This difference between AM and EM trees allows pines to become dominant species with great ecosystems impacts.

Pinus contorta has been introduced to many parts of the world. Nonnative mammals present in some parts of the introduced range of P. contorta have helped to spread Northern Hemisphere ectomycorrhizal fungi that were cointroduced with the pine, thereby facilitating invasion (Nuñez et al., 2013 Wood et al., 2015 ). In this case, EM spread is independent of pines but the dispersal of EM by nonnative mammals helps pines to expand their ranges. Native trees, however, did not develop associations with nonnative EM, which are associated with P. contorta. Therefore, only the pines can use their own mycorrhizal fungi, which excludes native species. This supports facilitation in pines, in accordance with the invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simberloff & von Holle, 1999 ).

3.2.2 Ecosystem processes

Litterfall influences ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, which mediates the range expansion of pines in their native range (Read & Perez-Moreno, 2003 ). Litter and canopies of P. ponderosa have a negative impact on the growth and establishment of the invasive shrub species Centaurea stoebe by modifying soil and nutrient availability and its allelopathic effects (Metlen & Callaway, 2015 ). Negative impacts of P. contorta on native Chilean Patagonia vegetation are determined by its height and canopy size (Franzese, Urrutia, García, Taylor, & Pauchard, 2017 ).

Pines invade treeless temperate grasslands and fynbos shrublands (Figure 2g,h) and have significant impacts on nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and ecohydrology (Rundel et al., 2014 ). Gymnosperms dominate in low-nutrient situations and angiosperm dominance in the productive habitats (Berendse & Scheffer, 2009 ). The low nutrient requirements of pines, and their ability to mobilize soil nutrients, allow them to outcompete broad-leaved species with higher nutrient demands. In central Himalaya, the net primary productivity per unit foliar nitrogen in P. roxburghii forest is 2.3–4.5 times more than those of oak (Q. leucotrichophora), śāl (Shorea robusta), and other forest types (Singh & Singh, 1992 ). Pinus strobus invades nitrogen-limited grasslands by having a longer nitrogen residence time which keeps the annual demand lower than for all other species including other tree species and grasses (Laungani & Knops, 2009 ). Thus, nitrogen retention is probably one of the drivers of range expansion of pines. Keeping nutrient availability low is one of the several strategies where conifers have an advantage over more nutrient-demanding plants in fertile sites (Berendse & Scheffer, 2009 ).

The infertile and acidic soils from the oldest coastal terraces in northern California support pygmy conifers (e.g., P. contorta var. bolanderi, P. muricata, and Cupressus pygmaea) and certain ericaceous species (Northup, Dahlgren, Aide, & Zimmerman, 1999 ). Northup, Yu, Dahlgren, and Vogt ( 1995 ) found that P. muricata releases polyphenols in the infertile soils of heath forests which helps in the release of dissolved organic nitrogen rather than /. P. muricata thus survives in the extremely harsh conditions by using a nitrogen conservation mechanism in an ecosystem with severe N deficiency. Pines can utilize organic nitrogen through their mycorrhizal symbionts. Pines seem to conserve nitrogen in infertile soils by producing polyphenol (tannin)-rich litter (Hättenschwiler & Vitousek, 2000 ). The capacity of tannin to precipitate protein, however, is mediated by the composition, hydroxylation, substitution, polymerization, and linkage connecting monomer units of condensed tannins (Suseela & Tharayil, 2017 ). It is not clear why conifers are abundant in old terraces worldwide (Coomes et al., 2005 ). More evidence is required to clarify whether condensed tannin-driven short-circuiting of the nitrogen cycle by pines gives them advantages over their competitors.

3.2.3 Biogeographical–evolutionary advantages

Many of the hypotheses that are currently debated in invasion ecology assume that species experience biogeographicalevolutionary advantages in their introduced ranges compared to their native ranges (Hierro, Maron, & Callaway, 2005 Inderjit, Catford, Kalisz, Simberloff, & Wardle, 2017 Inderjit, Wardle, Karban, & Callaway, 2011 ). Gallien et al. ( 2016 ) reported that understanding biogeographical and evolutionary histories is valuable for understanding pine invasions. They found that pines belonging to lineages that were particularly successful at colonizing new regions over the evolutionary history of the genus are more likely to be invasive. The role of climate-niche evolution in pine invasion has also been clearly demonstrated. Gallien et al. ( 2016 ) argued that an expansion of pines in the climatic niche between native and invasive ranges may be driven not by local adaptation, but by the potential of pines to spread in climatic conditions that are not available in native ranges. Pines may experience these advantages in terms of their responses to consumers, competitors, or mutualists in novel ranges (Taylor et al., 2017 Wood et al., 2015 ). Pines suppress species richness in both native and introduced ranges but can grow much faster in introduced ranges than native ranges (Taylor et al., 2016b ). Pinus contorta exerts greater impact on species richness of individual species and impact on composition of native species along invasion gradient in introduced ranges than in the native range (Taylor et al., 2016b ). We have limited empirical evidence to identify the mechanisms behind advantages experienced by pines in their introduced ranges.

More research is needed on biogeographicalevolutionary advantages experienced by nonnative pine species in their introduced ranges. Pine invasions occur predominantly in treeless ecosystems where the lack of native trees reduces competition for the nonnative pines (Rundel et al., 2014 ). In Argentina and Chile, there are several cases of invasion in the Patagonian steppe, an arid environment dominated by grasses and shrubs where no native trees grow (Langdon et al., 2010 Sarasola et al., 2006 ). South African fynbos, another virtually treeless ecosystem, is highly invaded by pines (Richardson & Brown, 1986 Richardson, Cowling, & Le Maitre, 1990 ). In New Zealand, large areas of grasslands and shrublands have been invaded by P. contorta (Ledgard, 2001 ). Richardson et al. ( 1994 ) reviewed the habitats invaded by the different pine species in the Southern Hemisphere they found that the absence of native trees, due to natural factors or human activities, is a very common characteristic of invaded habitats. In alpine ecosystems, pines may also have an advantage if they can grow above the native tree line. In Chile and New Zealand, native trees can grow up to 1,950 m.a.s.l. and 1,350 m.a.s.l., respectively, while pines can grow up to 4,000 m.a.s.l. in their native range (Körner & Paulsen, 2004 ). This capability of pines to endure the stressful conditions of alpine environments may help them invade above tree line in their introduced range. Invasions above tree line have already occurred along the Andean range (Pauchard et al., 2015 ) and in New Zealand (Simberloff et al., 2010 ). The genus Pinus is an excellent model system for designing experiments to unravel the mechanisms of range expansion in native range and invasion in introduced ranges (Richardson, 2006 ). More data are needed to determine whether pines experience plant–soil feedbacks, enemy release, novel chemicals and litter decomposition, and nutrient availability in their introduced ranges.

Pines may resist the invasion of nonnative species in their native ranges. Pinus ponderosa exhibits strong competitive potential in its native range in North America and resists invasion by some aggressive nonnative species. Acidic conditions and low phosphorus levels under canopies of native P. ponderosa in the northern Rocky Mountains favor native grasses such as Festuca idahoensis and Pseudoroengaeria spicata (Gundale, Sutherland, & DeLuca, 2008 ), and the aggressive Eurasian species Centaurea stoebe does not invade in the habitat where P. ponderosa was present (Metlen & Callaway, 2015 ). Pine litter is known to exhibit allelopathic potential (Lodhi & Killingbeck, 1982 ), and this could be the mechanism for preventing the establishment of C. stoebe (Metlen & Callaway, 2015 ). This supports a key invasion hypothesis: “biotic resistance to invasion.” Biotic resistance to invasion by soil microbial communities is widely studied (see Inderjit & van der Putten, 2010 ), but few studies have explored the role of chemicals produced by native species in resisting invasion by other species. More research is needed to establish the role of chemicals released by pines in resisting invasion by nonnative plant species.

3.3 Human-mediated pine dominance

Pines have flourished in many areas during the Anthropocene due to many factors associated with the accelerating impacts of humans on ecosystems. Increased fire intensity, human-mediated disturbance, and climate change have dramatically altered opportunities for pine establishment and spread (Carrión et al., 2003 ). Pinus is the most widely planted tree genus in the world (Brown & Ball, 2000 ) this has provided propagule pressure to launch invasions in many areas (Braga, Zenni, & Hay, 2014 Essl, Moser, Dullinger, Mang, & Hulme, 2010 Nuñez et al., 2009 , 2017 Pauchard et al., 2016 Procheş et al., 2012 Simberloff et al., 2010 ). Such human-mediated movements and the capacity of pines to change nutrient cycling and other functional traits have enabled them to persist, expand, and dominate in many environments in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and pines are widely invasive in the Southern Hemisphere.

Pines owe their invasiveness to small seed mass, propagule pressure, rapid population growth (Gallien et al., 2016 Rejmánek & Richardson, 1996 ), wide niche breadth (McGregor et al., 2012 ), and widespread and sustained human use (Procheş et al., 2012 ). Some pine taxa (e.g., P. contorta, P. densiflora, P. halepensis, P. pinaster, and P. radiata) are light-demanding and fast-growing these species regenerate abundantly as even-aged cohorts following natural or human-mediated disturbances and differ from other conifers in their ability to aggressively colonize disturbed sites (Richardson, 1998 ). Although many facets of the invasion ecology of pines have been studied in many habitats around the world, more work is needed to expand our knowledge of the full range of factors that mediate success. For example, further research is needed to determine the roles of pine chemicals, litter-manipulated ecosystem processes (plant–soil feedbacks), and biogeographicalevolutionary advantages gained by pines in their introduced ranges.

One element of human-mediated global change, global warming, could increase forest fire by increasing drought frequency and could cause earlier onset of the growing season (Westerling, Hidalgo, Cayan, & Swetnam, 2006 ). Scots pine (P. sylvestris) was dominant in the early Holocene when temperatures were 2.5°C warmer than in late 19th century (Kullman & Kjällgren, 2006 ). Pines are likely to regain dominance in tree line ecotones in response to changing climate regimes, as occurred in the early Holocene (Kullman & Kjällgren, 2006 ). Pines may shift or expand their ranges or regain dominance in response to climate change.

Human impacts such as alterations to fire and grazing regimes and land use, plantations, the reshuffling of biotas, and pollution could reduce or shift pine ranges (Richardson et al., 2007 ). Grazing by rats, rabbits, sheep, and cattle exerts negative impacts on the regeneration of pine seedlings in many areas (e.g., P. contorta, P. radiata var. binata, and P. sylvestris) (Nasca, Relva, & Núñez, 2018 Richardson et al., 2007 ). Several pine taxa with small ranges are facing the threat of extinction through habitat transformation, heavy utilization, and other factors associated with human actions. Richardson et al. ( 2007 ) discussed examples of factors that can result in the reduction and/or shift in pine ranges.

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Les modalités d’acquisition et d’exploitation du bois végétal mises en oeuvre au Paléolithique m. more Les modalités d’acquisition et d’exploitation du bois végétal mises en oeuvre au
Paléolithique moyen sont mal connues du fait, en partie, de la mauvaise conservation
des matières organiques. Nous proposons une synthèse de nouvelles données obtenues
à la suite de l’étude tracéologique d’une quinzaine de séries, en silex et en quartzite,
d’Europe occidentale. Elles révèlent notamment un faible taux d’outils utilisés pour le
travail du bois. Nos résultats sont discutés et comparés aux autres études tracéologiques,
plus anciennes ou contemporaines, menées sur la même période.
Mots clés : tracéologie lithique, expérimentation, travail du bois, Paléolithique moyen.

Patterns of wood procurement and use are poorly known for the Middle Paleolithic
period partly because organic remains are rarely preserved. We propose a synthesis of
new data obtained from a use -wear study of nearly fifteen collections of flint and quartzite
artifacts from several sites in Western Europe. We show that a low rate of tools and
flakes could have been used for woodworking. Our results are discussed and compared
with those of former and recent usewear analyses from the same time period.
Keywords : lithic use-wear analysis, experiments, woodworking, Middle Palaeolithic.

Diversity of techniques used for the making of Mousterian notches and denticulates at Mauran (Hau. more Diversity of techniques used for the making of Mousterian notches and denticulates at Mauran (Haute-Garonne, France)

The archaeological evidence from Mauran Middle Paleolithic open-air site is the result of several consecutive seasonal occupations mainly related with Bison hunting. The lithic industry, characterized by the use of a large number of different raw materials, was related to the Denticulate Mousterian facies. The study of notches and denticulates reveals that the retouched edges and the notches negatives vary morphologically up to a point. Therefore, all the cutting edges do not have the same morphological characteristics and do not show the same functional potential. Those special features should be related with the different techniques used for their making. The aim of this work is to determine, using a technological and experimental approach, which techniques led to the very special scar negatives shown by the Mauran archaeological notches and denticulates.

Watch the video: Catalonia Travel Guide: What To Eat u0026 Do in the Pyrenees (June 2022).


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