11.7: Natal Bean Discrimination by Bean Beetles (Instructor Materials Preparation)* - Biology

11.7: Natal Bean Discrimination by Bean Beetles (Instructor Materials Preparation)* - Biology

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Lab Materials

This is the prep for one section of 24 students.

Bean Beetles

Side bench: containers of assorted beans: garbanzo bean, black beans, mung beans, baby lima beans, split green peas, black eyed peas

To share between students: cultures of bean beetles, male and female adults. Bean beetles can be purchased from Carolina Biological. Information for care of bean beetles to maintain your own culture can be found here:

Students will do this part in table teams (groups of 4).

large Petri dish (experimental chamber)1 per table
soft forceps1-2 per table
small paint brush1-2 per table
hand held lens1-2 per table

Remotely Hands-On

Teaching lab sciences and the fine arts during COVID-19.

Line by line and curve by curve, Michael McGreal recently transformed a block of ice in his backyard into a swordfish. He drew a small, socially distanced crowd as he went: the buzz of his chain saw and the spectacle of ice carving during a pandemic caught the attention of some passersby.

McGreal was happy to provide distraction and a bit of beauty in a strange time. But this was about work. The chair of culinary arts at Joliet Junior College near Chicago was taping himself for an upcoming meeting of his ice-carving class. Typically, he makes swordfish live on campus in front of students, who then chisel away at their own blocks of ice with power tools.

But this is the COVID-19 era, in which instructors who teach fundamentally hands-on courses across fields are finding ways to make remote learning work.

&ldquoIt&rsquos not as difficult a transition as I expected,&rdquo said McGreal. &ldquoThe labor part of it is a lot,&rdquo he admitted, &ldquosetting up our homes to do cooking videos live and taping them. And a lot of us have children at home now.&rdquo

At the same time, McGreal continued, &ldquoit&rsquos an exciting chance for us to do some things for an online format that will make our face-to-face classes better than ever before.&rdquo

Take ice carving. McGreal plans to save the videos he&rsquos made of fish and swan carvings for his students this semester and share them with his classes going forward. That way, he said, students can watch the videos in advance of class and be more prepared to attempt their own sculptures when they meet.

There&rsquos something intimate and effective about asking students to watch their instructors cook and bake in their own home kitchens, McGreal said, even if they&rsquore not cooking on their own now. (The department discussed asking students to cook along via Zoom but decided it was unwise to ask students to pay and even shop for ingredients. Still, many students stuck at home have been cooking on their own and sharing photos with their instructors and peers on chat boards.)

&ldquoThey&rsquore coming into our worlds now instead of a steel, sterile classroom, and it makes you feel more comfortable,&rdquo McGreal said. &ldquoStudents seem to be loving it.&rdquo

McGreal's students are in the hospitality business, after all, he added.

Comfortable doesn&rsquot mean sustainable, however. McGreal said his department&rsquos mostly synchronous cooking sessions, which are later posted to YouTube for students who can&rsquot watch live, are working because students spent at least eight weeks on campus prior to going remote. During that time they learned fundamental techniques in cooking, baking and carving, hands-on. Most of what they&rsquore learning about now, by watching their instructors cook, is the sophisticated application of those skills. It&rsquos hard to imagine that this Food Network-inspired approach to culinary education could work long-term without that kind of introduction, he said.

Remote STEM

Michelle Stocker, assistant professor of geobiology at Virginia Tech, agreed that &ldquofor this semester we can make it work. I wouldn&rsquot necessarily say we like doing this at all, though.&rdquo

Aided by the many scholars of anatomy who have rushed to share 3-D mesh and other kinds of skeletal images online over the last six weeks on such websites as MorphoSource and Sketchfab, Stocker has been able to continue teaching a lab course on vertebrate morphology with relative ease. Even so, one graduate student in the mixed-level class already asked to sit it on it the next time Stocker teaches it, for the authentic experience. Her answer? Of course.

The upper-level course is designed to be challenging and extremely hands-on, with students handling skeletal materials for 2.5 hours at a time. Now students examine specimens online in Zoom sessions. Stocker, who also took physical specimens home with her, sometimes logs in on a second account to magnify them with her cellphone camera. Because Stocker&rsquos students, like McGreal&rsquos, spent weeks on campus before going remote, they remember these specimens -- down to the way they smell.

Even so, students can&rsquot interact with the materials as they can in the lab. So Stocker asks them to interact with each other more. Students are encouraged to virtually share bones they found on COVID-19-safe walks in the woods, for example, and the class works to identify the animal and what might have happened to it.

This is also a way to counter the Zoom fatigue that many professors report: teaching remotely, it seems, feels more tiring than teaching in person, because it&rsquos hard to gauge student reactions.

&ldquoTalking to yourself for a long time can be super boring,&rdquo Stocker laughed.

Julia Svoboda Gouvea, assistant professor of science education at Tufts University, coincidentally taught a computation-based module on the flu in her organisms and populations lab at the beginning of the semester. The goals of the project were to track the flu season on the genetic sequencing database Nextstrain and ultimately recommend a course of action to the World Health Organization for next year&rsquos flu season. But students became more and more engaged in tracking COVID-19 as the weeks wore on.

&ldquoThey could see how the transmission process was happening&rdquo via the genomic sequencing data on Nextstrain, Gouvea said.

Students had time to move on to another design-your-own-experiment unit involving the egg-laying behaviors of bean beetles before the campus closed due to the coronavirus outbreak.

By now, Gouvea said, &ldquothere are a bunch of beetles hanging out in the lab that we were never able to quantify. And students were designing these experiments knowing that they were never going to see the results, so that kind of undercut the authenticity of the activity.&rdquo

Presently, students are working remotely on a unit involving plants. Gouvea converted this final section of the course into a literature-heavy one, in which students read research papers and use a collaborative commenting tool to discuss them. Students will write their own responses to the literature by the end of the term.

Some of the papers Gouvea found for this unit are inspiring her to think ahead to other possible iterations of the course. A research area about how plants communicate through volatile chemicals and their roots has Gouvea thinking that she might ask future students to buy relatively inexpensive sensors to detect volatile chemicals on outdoor plants, or those in their own homes.

Doing lab science remotely is more than possible, Gouvea said. Still, she worried about capturing what is arguably the most important part of lab work: struggle.

&ldquoThe labs that I design are very discretion-based,&rdquo she said. &ldquoThey&rsquore hard for students and we use real data, not a pretend lab activity.&rdquo Students are often confused, in a good way, for a portion of the lab, as they ask questions and move through challenges, Gouvea said. She asked if that process can be sustained online.

To teach lab work remotely from the outset, she continued, &ldquoYou&rsquore going to have tell students it&rsquos OK not to understand this within the first five minutes of opening up a webpage.&rdquo

Simulations and Accreditation

Simulated lab technologies are already available and seeing increased use due to COVID-19. Labster, for example, donated $5 million worth of services to K-12 and college and university instructors affected by the disruption. Ten thousand instructors signed up. Program usage increased by 10 times in the last two weeks, and Labster today announced a new partnership with the California Community Colleges.

Co-founder Michael Bodekaer said the company&rsquos mission is to engage students in science, in part through gamification of lab work, and to increase access. Many institutions lack top lab facilities, he said, and even campuses with the best equipment may bar students from using their high-end tools.

Labster&rsquos modules, he said, &ldquoare like a flight simulator for pilots.&rdquo The purpose is not to replace labs entirely, but to keep students interested in and prepared enough for science to excel when they get there.

article in Nature finding a twofold improvement in students&rsquo learning outcomes after using gamified simulations. To Gouvea&rsquos point about struggle, Labster's virtual guides sometimes allow students to fail at first.

&ldquoThere are many ways you can do this, and each teacher has their own preferences, like blended learning and teachers providing courses as homework,&rdquo Bodekaer said.

Accreditation is another piece of the puzzle. How do outside bodies responsible for assuring quality in hands-on programs adapt to the moment?

ABET, which accredits thousand of programs in the applied and natural sciences, computing, and engineering, has advised institutions not to alert it to short-term adaptations due to the coronavirus. Permanent changes will need to be flagged, however.

Joseph L. Sussman, chief accreditation officer at the organization, said, &ldquoWe fully understand that institutions and programs are having to make accommodations to safeguard their communities and contribute to the containment of the virus.&rdquo

Most important &ldquois a program&rsquos ongoing ability, regardless of delivery method, to demonstrate that it is enabling the achievement of the student outcomes associated with program.&rdquo

Sussman added, &ldquoABET accreditation will not be a barrier to success.&rdquo

The Arts Online

In addition to many colleagues in the sciences and job training programs, professors of the fine arts are adapting deeply physical work for a whole new world.

Douglas Russell, a professor of drawing at the University of Wyoming, sent an announcement to his drawing students last month about new modules he set up for the course. There is a recommended order to moving through them, but students may proceed in any order, at their own pace. Everything is due at the end of the semester. The typical module includes an assignment, a discussion component, instructional videos and images to view, plus slides.

presence. Set reminders and time-specific deadlines, use platforms your students already use (Lieu loves YouTube), offer students different modes of communication with you, and be flexible and accept substitutions. Lieu also advocated distilling the essential points of any lecture down to their essence. Online attention spans are low, she said.

History Billions of Brood X cicadas have been emerging from their underground lairs after 17 years of hibernation. Here are the states where you can see them. History Billions of Brood X cicadas have been emerging from their underground lairs after 17 years of hibernation. Here are the states where you can see them.

Movement of Viruses Within Plants

I Properties of the MPs

The MPs of bromoviruses, cucumoviruses, AMV, and ilarviruses are encoded by the 3a gene on RNA3 giving products ranging from 32 to 36 kDa (see Appendix A, Profiles 51–55 Appendix A, Profile 51 Appendix A, Profile 52 Appendix A, Profile 53 Appendix A, Profile 54 Appendix A, Profile 55 for genome organizations). These proteins accumulate early in virus infection, bind RNA cooperatively, associate with the cell wall fraction, locate to the plasmodesmatal region, and increase plasmodesmatal SEL ( Zheng et al., 1997 Canto and Palukaitis, 1999 ).

Cell-to-cell movement of BMV strain M1 requires CP as well as the MP in Chenopodium quinoa ( Callaway et al., 2001 ), the movement being determined by a C-terminal domain of the CP ( Okinaka et al., 2001 ). However, other strains of BMV are able to move from cell to cell independently of CP ( Takeda et al., 2005 ). BMV strain M1 MP forms tubules extending from protoplasts ( Kasteel et al., 1997 ).

CCMV cell-to-cell movement requires the MP but not CP ( Rao, 1997 ). However, in light of the difference between BMV strains in CP requirement it would be interesting to study other CCMV strains. Analysis of the cell-to-cell spread of a CCMV variant in which the CP gene had been substituted by enhanced GFP showed that the rate of spread varied with host, being faster in N. benthamiana than in cowpea ( Rao and Cooper, 2006 ).

Chimeric viruses made by exchanging the MP gene between BMV M1 and CCMV could move from cell to cell ( Sasaki et al., 2003 ). Interference in CP expression impaired the movement of chimeric CCMV with the BMV MP gene but not of chimeric BMV with the CCMV MP gene. Thus, the MP gene in this case is important in determining the virus-specific CP requirement for bromovirus cell-to-cell movement. However, in light of differences between various BMV strains and possibly effects of different hosts, need for the interactions between MP and CP should be interpreted with care. Both BMV MP and CP are phosphorylated in BMV-infected barley protoplasts and co-precipitate with anti-BMV MP antiserum implying that these two proteins interact ( Akamatsu et al., 2007 ).

CMV MP binds ssRNA and localizes to plasmodesmata ( Palukaitis and García-Arenal, 2003 ). CMV-Y strain requires the cognate CP as well as its MP for movement ( Nagano et al., 1999 ). However, when the C-terminal 33 amino acids are removed from the MP the virus can move independently of its CP ( Nagano et al., 2001 ). There are differences in the strength of binding of CP to the MP between the complete and truncated MP ( Andreev et al., 2004 ) it is suggested that the truncated MP forms a “more dense” RNP complex. CMV MP can also generate tubules on the surface of protoplasts ( Canto and Palukaitis, 1999 ), but such tubules are not seen between cells in CMV-infected N. clevelandii ( Blackman et al., 1998 ). Furthermore, a mutant CMV MP was unable to form tubules on the surface of protoplasts but could support both local and systemic movements ( Canto and Palukaitis, 1999 Li et al., 2001 ).

AMV MP binds RNA non-specifically and induces tubules extending from the surface of protoplasts which contain ER- or plasmalemma-derived material (Huang et al., 2001). Although AMV cell-to-cell movement requires both the MP and CP ( Sánchez-Navarro and Bol, 2001 ), it does not require virion formation ( Sánchez-Navarro et al., 2006 ). Mutations that interfered with dimer formation of the CP reduced or abolished cell-to-cell movement of the virus in plants ( Tenllado and Bol, 2000 ).

The MP of the ilarvirus, PNRSV, binds ssRNA cooperatively without sequence specificity. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the nucleic acid-binding domain is amino acids 56–88 being at the N-terminus (as also with AMV) in contrast with bromoviruses and cucumoviruses where it is at the C-terminus ( Harranz and Pallás, 2004 ).

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Soybean Diseases

Seedling Diseases

The members of the Identification and Biology of Seedling Pathogens of Soybean project funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and plant pathologists across the United States have developed the following ratings for how well fungicide seed treatments control seedling diseases of soybeans in the United States. Efficacy ratings for each fungicide active ingredient listed in Table 8-1 were determined by field-testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of this group, and include ratings summarized from national fungicide trials published in Plant Disease Management Reports (and formerly Fungicide and Nematicide Tests) by the American Phytopathological Society. Each rating is based on the fungicide&rsquos level of disease control, and does not necessarily reflect efficacy of fungicide active ingredient combinations and/or yield increases obtained from applying the active ingredient.

The list includes the most common products available as of the release date of the table. It is not intended to be a list of all labeled active ingredients and products. Additional active ingredients may be available, but have not been evaluated in a manner allowing a rating. Additional active ingredients may be included in some products for insect and nematode control however, only active ingredients for pathogen control are listed and rated.

Many active ingredients and their products have specific use restrictions. Read and follow all use restrictions before applying any fungicide to seed, or before handling any fungicide-treated seed. This information is provided only as a guide. It is the applicator&rsquos and user&rsquos legal responsibility to read and follow all current label directions. Reference in this publication to any specific commercial product, process, or service, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporation name is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement, recommendation, or certification of any kind by members of the group, or by the North Central Soybean Research Program. Individuals using such products assume responsibility for their use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

Papers of Bruce McKinney

Bruce A. McKinney was born December 13, 1953 in Coffeyville, Kansas to Gilbert "Dean" McKinney (1926-2007) and Velma Louise Bates (born 1930), who married on November 2, 1950. McKinney graduated from Coffeyville High School in 1971 and went on to attend college at Wichita State University (WSU) from 1971-1975.

McKinney began his career in activism while a youth by joining the Tulsa Organization for Human Rights, paying for the membership with his paper route money. At college he became involved in WSU's Student Homophile Association. After leaving college in 1975, he continued his activism, working to help found the Metropolitan Community Church of Wichita and the Homophile Association of Sedgwick County. In 1977, the Homophile Association of Sedgwick County proposed an amendment to the city council of Wichita, prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. The ordinance was initially passed, but then overturned after being placed on the ballot in 1978.

During the 1980s, McKinney took a sabbatical from activism until he determined it was time for Kansas to have its first Gay Pride parade. McKinney joined Wichita's Gay Pride planning committee in 1988 and was instrumental in Kansas' first Gay Pride Parade in 1990. He has remained involved in the community since that time and is an active member of the Wichita Pride Committee, Kansas Equality Coalition, and the Gay and Lesbian Awards (G.A.L.A).

McKinney began collecting items related to the gay community in his youth after purchasing the Little Blue Book 1,000 Famous Homosexuals by E. Haldeman-Julius at a garage sale. His collecting continued through the 1970s and 1980s. By the mid-1990s, his archive was housed at the Wichita Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community Center. After The Center, as it was known, closed, McKinney retained most of the items from the collection and continued adding to it through the years. Papers by Rob Gutzman and Steve Wheeler were donated to McKinney's archive posthumously.

In August 2008, McKinney donated his archive to the Kenneth Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas and has made some additional donations since.


114 Linear Feet (142 boxes + 147 oversize boxes, 9 oversize folders)

Additional Description

Scope and Contents

The Bruce McKinney Collection contains materials from approximately 1900 to 2008 and is arranged in 8 main series: the Papers of Bruce McKinney, the Papers of Rob Gutzman, the Papers of Steve Wheeler, Organization papers, Newspaper Articles and Clippings, Magazine and Newspaper Serials, Memorabilia, and Oversize Serials.

The Papers of Bruce McKinney, Rob Gutzman, and Steve Wheeler contain personal and professional correspondence, organization papers, and documents reflecting each man's personal interests, often related to activities within the LGBT community.

The Organization Papers are comprised of a variety of documents such as volunteer manuals, meeting minutes, and annual reports for various LGBT organizations from Wichita and around the state of Kansas.

Magazine and Newspaper Serials contain a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and newsletters from Kansas, Illinois, and a number of other states and foreign countries.

Memorabilia includes materials such as flags, posters, and event buttons from across the country.

Series List

The Bruce McKinney collection dates from approximately 1900 to 2008 and is arranged in 8 main series: Bruce McKinney's papers, Rob Gutzman's papers, Steve Wheeler (and Dale Schultz)'s papers, Organizational records, Newspaper articles and clippings, Magazine and newspaper serials, Memorabilia, and Oversize serials. There have been additions to the collection, which typically follow the same organization as the original series but are located at different call numbers.

Photographs are located at RH MS-P 1232. Oversize materials have been separated and are located at RH MS Q306, RH MS Q338, RH MS R264, RH MS R265, RH MS R301, RH MS R354, RH MS R355, RH MS S26, and RH MS S32.

The University of South Florida announced the appointment of R. Anthony Rolle, an experienced leader and former professor and department chair at USF, as the new dean of the College of Education. Rolle returns to USF after serving as dean of the Alan Shawn Feinstein College of Education and Professional Studies at the University of Rhode Island for the past four years. Rolle will officially join the USF community in his new position in August.

The College of Education operates on multiple campuses, offering courses and programs at each location. Learn more about our presence on each campus.


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Watch the video: Discrimination (May 2022).


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