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1.3: Soil and Water Conservation - Biology

1.3: Soil and Water Conservation - Biology



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Biodiversity is also important for global soil and water protection. Terrestrial vegetation in forests and other upland habitats maintain water quality and quantity, and controls soil erosion.

In watersheds where vegetation has been removed, flooding prevails in the wet season and drought in the dry season. Soil erosion is also more intense and rapid, causing a double effect: removing nutrient-rich topsoil and leading to siltation in downstream riverine and ultimately oceanic environments. This siltation harms riverine and coastal fisheries as well as damaging coral reefs (Turner and Rabalais 1994; van Katwijk et al. 1993).

One of the most productive ecosystems on earth, wetlands have water present at or near the surface of the soil or within the root zone, all year or for a period of time during the year, and the vegetation there is adapted to these conditions. Wetlands are instrumental for the maintenance of clean water and erosion control. Microbes and plants in wetlands absorb nutrients and in the process filter and purify water of pollutants before they can enter coastal or other aquatic ecosystems.

Wetlands also reduce flood, wave, and wind damage. They retard the flow of floodwaters and accumulate sediments that would otherwise be carried downstream or into coastal areas. Wetlands also serve as breeding grounds and nurseries for fish and support thousands of bird and other animal species.

Glossary

watersheds
land areas drained by a river and its tributaries
wetlands
areas where water is present at or near the surface of the soil or within the root zone, all year or for a period of time during the year, and where the vegetation is adapted to these conditions

Land and Water Conservation through Watershed Development

Different types of activities can be implemented for watershed area development, which instead is development of the area.

This includes construction of different structures for soil and water conservation. Both cultivable as well as uncultivable lands are covered in it.

It is desirable to give a detailed technical knowledge about such structures here so that development workers can make sustainable development in any geographical region by following them.

Leveling and Contour Bunding:

So far, big pakka structures have been constructed for soil and water conservation but they were not suitable from economic and environ­mental point of view. They could also not associate a large number of people and give employment to them. Hence, for soil and water conservation, trenches and earthen check dams in uncultivable lands, and leveling of land in cultivable lands along with contour bunding were started in modern forms.

Rain water was absorbed in the field itself by contour bunding so that the water did not flow uncontrolled to cause soil erosion nor did it develop gullies and spoil the soil. Height of these bunds was proposed to be 40 cms to 60 cms and for stability of these bunds during rain, local grasses were also planted over them.

In desert regions like Rajasthan, though the problem of water How is not there due to scanty rainfall, but severe problem of soil erosion is noticed due to dryness and fast flow of air. In these areas, ‘Kanabundi’ is done for soil conservation.

In ‘Kanabandi’, a row of dry shrubs and grasses are erected against the wind direction, so that blowing away of earth is prevented. Dry shrubs convert into organic manure after decay, which both contribute to better production, and reduces formation of sand dunes. For stabilization of fine sand dunes, mulching of dry shrubs is also done in desert areas.

Vegetative Filter Strip:

An irregular and continuously changing vegetative filter strip is prepared by planting local shrubs. Its plantation is done in such a way that it develops in shape of a net and the flowing water passes through it after being filtered. This technique is known as vegetative filter strip. Because of filtering of water through the strip, not only does the force of water flow reduces but silt is also prevented from going farther due to filtering.

Hence, soil erosion is controlled. Moreover, availability of biomass also increases in the form of vegetative filter strip in the watershed area. Such type of structure is developed mainly at places where soil erosion is faster due to changing flow of water and water does not stop flowing. After development of a vegetative filter strip, flowing water goes under the ground slowly and increases the groundwater. This is suitable for cultivable as well as un-cultivable lands.

Contour Vegetative Hedge:

For establishing Contour Vegetative Hedge, vegetative hedge of local species is planted according to the structure and slope of the land. After planting it in the lower boundary of the field, hedges are erected in the route of flowing water so that soil flowing with water may stop and water is filtered so that it flows gradually. This controls soil erosion and also prevents soil decay. It also increases availability of biomass in the area. Roots of trees planted in the contour vegetative hedge hold fast the soil and there is no investment except for the normal cost of plants.

Generally, contour vegetative hedge is planted on lands having normal to medium slope. These hedges are planted by the sides of narrow furrow, trench or bund. They can also be laid by the sides of streams in flood affected areas.

In the present context of watershed development, some of the following facts are worthy of consideration:

1. Government of India has recommended plantation of ‘Vetiver’ grass under the Watershed Area Rainfed Agricultural System Approach (WARASA), as the best available conservation vegetation.

2. In Rajasthan, vegetative species like Ber (Zizyphus), Mehandi, Moonj, Dhaman grass, Khas, Hemta, Lemon grass and other local brands of vegetation can be used.

Gully Control:

Gully control is an important conservative measure in uncultivable land reform programmes. It controls soil erosion from being caused in watershed areas. The upper layer of soil is destroyed by gully erosion and the levelled ground becomes a wide and deep valley after that.

Soil erosion can be controlled by constructing check dams and developing vegetative covers. The form of gully erosion depends on the hydrological condition, quantity of silt, and requirement of vegetation by soils and people. Gully erosion mainly depends on necessity of vegetation by the structure of the check dam and gully erosion can be mainly controlled by check dam structures.

Check dams are of two types:

Classification of both these types depends on the structure of flow of water from any tank or gap. Check dam is constructed on the upper parts of a river. The number of check dams that may be constructed over a river would depend on the flow of water, slope and force of the flow. This number may vary from one to one hundred. This whole system can be constructed with the participation of the local people.

The main objective of constructing such a check dam is to filter the flow of river water after controlling the eroding power of water so that silt deposits in it, and the water moves ahead after being filtered. Its construction is done with logs of wood and pieces of rocks. Water remains stored for local use in it, but it is constructed for some future object. Its construction can also be done by trees of thick wood, loose stones, and fences.

This dam is constructed on natural ground parts or concrete, and stone is used for strong cover. It is usually constructed in loamy soil or barren land where gullies are formed of shallow and loose soil. The objective of construction of impervious check dams is to use water after its storage as well as to check soil erosion since water does not pass through these structures.


Promoting Good Health and Economic Vitality Through Outdoor Recreation

USDA-managed National Forests and Grasslands provide opportunities for over 165 million visitors each year to experience the wonders of nature and be physically active. These recreational uses also support an estimated 200,000 full and part time jobs and contribute almost $13 billion to local communities each year. Over the last two years, USDA has helped support more than 25 state public access programs and opened an estimated 2.4 million acres for hunting, fishing and other outdoor recreational opportunities on privately-owned lands. Additionally, almost $30 million in grants, provided through the Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program, will help promote an estimated 35 percent increase in the number of participating landowners and increase outdoor recreation in these states by 21 percent.

USDA has enrolled more than one million acres of private working lands specifically to protect habitat for duck, pheasant, quail and other birds through "continuous signup" Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) initiatives. Along with the U.S. Department of Interior, USDA established a Federal Interagency Council on Outdoor Recreation (FICOR) to improve recreational access to federal lands across federal agencies and proposed a special $5 million set-aside in the Land and Water Conservation Fund to improve hunting and fishing access to federal lands.


Soil Management – A Foundational Strategy for Conservation

Soil is the great connector of lives, the source and destination of all. The healer and restorer and resurrector, by which disease passes into health, age into youth, death into life. Without proper care for it we can have no life

Wendell Berry: The Unsettling of America

When we talk about conservation, most people think about protecting landscapes and wildlife and ensuring clean air and water. What they’re probably not thinking about is soil.

But soil is more than just our geological backdrop. Healthy soil means healthy landscapes and water systems—it’s the basis of all life and provides water, food, clean air, a stable climate and good health.

Since joining The Nature Conservancy a year ago, I’ve been on the road talking to many people about their soil. As a soil scientist, I’m eager to learn more about where and how we work, and also to raise the profile of one of our most important conservation strategies – how and why soil is critical for our future.

Scientists like myself focus on the biological, chemical and physical properties that make soil one of the most precious materials on Earth. We explore the ways soils are living ecosystems that support the growth of plants, filter and regulate the cycling of water, decompose and recycle materials—and store more than twice as much carbon as in the atmosphere. We are also fascinated with the complexity, what we still don’t know about soil biology and how it functions – the uncertainties, the unknowns.

But what strikes me most when I talk to people about their soil—on their farms, ranches or conservancies—is their passion. Passion to dig into the dirt and to get immersed in the creative process of restoring soils, building soil organic matter, feeding and nurturing soil biology. The places I have visited are varied geographically and culturally but all share the same need and drive to care for their soil.

Organic farm Southwestern Colorado. © Stephanie Newkirk

All too often conservation is perceived as an activity that protects something far away—a pristine ecosystem, a river, an endangered species, or even the global climate.These things are critical, of course yet it is when we talk about feeding our families and growing food that people realize that conservation often starts under our feet.

At the Conservancy, we recognize soil as a cornerstone of our global conservation work, crucial for protecting land and water, providing food and water sustainably, and addressing climate change. But while we have been implementing programs that improve soil – through vegetation restoration, wetland construction, cover cropping, terracing and more to achieve conservation—for the most part soil science and management have not been a primary focus of our conservation attention.

With the launch of our Global Soil Initiative we are starting to connect more of the dots on the role soils play in our work. The connection between soil and climate is perhaps the area of this work receiving the most public interest.Climate change is a global problem, and it requires solutions on a global scale. Our lands provide an untapped opportunity through a set of natural climate solutions – proven ways of both storing carbon and reducing carbon emissions in the world’s forests, grasslands and wetlands. At the same time the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) call out the importance of soil for sustainable agriculture, food and nutrition security, and restoration of terrestrial ecosystems.

Speaking to a group of soil scientists, climate scientists, activists and farmers outside of Paris this May, Christiana Figueres, former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) noted the “happy coincidence” that drawing down carbon into soil benefits both the atmosphere and the local farmer, saying that carbon in the soil is a very good proxy for the health of the land, and carbon in the atmosphere is a very good proxy for the planet’s lack of health.

Upper Tana Watershed, Kenya A farmer holding fresh soil on her hillside farm in the Upper Tana Watershed, Kenya. © Nick Hall

In fact, better soil management can create all sorts of “happy coincidences.” Protecting soils from erosion is a significant part of our water funds work, a well-established strategy for protecting the quality of the water for downstream users. But in addition to preventing runoff, we can also actively build the health of farm soil through practices such as composting, cover cropping and crop diversification. All of these practices will regenerate soil organic matter, increase farm productivity and farmer income.

Kenya offers another such example. The Northern Rangelands Trust partnership is working to make changes in rangeland management to increase soil carbon, leverage carbon markets and provide revenue for community rangeland trusts. In Northern Kenya, rangelands are managed mainly through the types of grazing animals, the density at which they are grazed, and the frequency by which they are rotated to other parts of the system to avoid overgrazing. These healthier, better-managed grasslands sequester more carbon from the atmosphere provide better habitat for wildlife and better pasture for livestock.

West Gate Conservancy in Kenya Samburu women plant seeds of native plants. © Ami Vitale/The Nature Conservancy

Investing in our soils is a strategy with massive untapped potential—potential we can realize if we start thinking holistically about what kind of interventions and policies are needed from top down and ground up. If we’re to deliver on our changing food needs, sustain global health, end poverty and beat climate change, then soil is our unrecognized hero. Isn’t it about time we did more?

Deborah is the Lead Soil Scientist for The Nature Conservancy, where she integrates new soil science expertise to support and advance existing climate, agriculture, forestry and conservation priorities and to better understand how TNC can scale its impact through improved soil management.


Living cover crops have immediate impacts on soil microbial community structure and function

Cover cropping is a widely promoted strategy to enhance soil health in agricultural systems. Despite a substantial body of literature demonstrating links between cover crops and soil biology, an important component of soil health, research evaluating how specific cover crop species influence soil microbial communities remains limited. This study examined the effects of eight fall-sown cover crop species grown singly and in multispecies mixtures on microbial community structure and soil biological activity using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and daily respiration rates, respectively. Fourteen cover crop treatments and a no cover crop control were established in August of 2011 and 2012 on adjacent fields in central Pennsylvania following spring oats (Avena sativa L.). Soil communities were sampled from bulk soil collected to a depth of 20 cm (7.9 in) in fall and spring, approximately two and nine months after cover crop planting and prior to cover crop termination. In both fall and spring, cover crops led to an increase in total PLFA concentration relative to the arable weed community present in control plots (increases of 5.37 nmol g −1 and 10.20 nmol g −1 , respectively). While there was a positive correlation between aboveground plant biomass (whether from arable weeds or cover crops) and total PLFA concentration, we also found that individual cover crop species favored particular microbial functional groups. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were more abundant beneath oat and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops. Non-AM fungi were positively associated with hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.). These cover crop-microbial group associations were present not only in monocultures, but also multispecies cover crop mixtures. Arable weed communities were associated with higher proportions of actinomycetes and Gram-positive bacteria. Soil biological activity varied by treatment and was positively correlated with both the size and composition (fungal:bacterial ratio) of the microbial community. This research establishes a clear link between cover crops, microbial communities, and soil health. We have shown that while cover crops generally promote microbial biomass and activity, there are species-specific cover crop effects on soil microbial community composition that ultimately influence soil biological activity. This discovery paves the way for intentional management of the soil microbiome to enhance soil health through cover crop selection.


Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Seventh Edition

Front Matter
Citation: Pages i-xvii (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.f) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, Water, Conservation, Environment, Irrigation Principles, Plant Water Needs.
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Chapter 1 : Conservation and the Environment
Citation: Pages 1-7 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.1) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Impact of Conservation Practices on the Environment, 1.1 Engineers in Soil and Water Conservation, 1.2 Conservation Ethics, 1.3 Environmental Regulations, 1.4 Hydrologic Cycle, Major Conservation Practices, 1.5
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Chapter 2: Water Quality
Citation: Pages 9-30 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.2) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Water Quality Issues, 2.1 Trophic States, 2.2 Dissolved Oxygen, 2.3 Contaminant Sources, Biological Contaminants, 2.4 Protozoa, 2.5 Bacteria, 2.6 Viruses, Chemical Contaminants, 2.7 Concentration Units, Examp
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Chapter 3: Precipitation
Citation: Pages 31-54 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.3) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Description, 3.1 Formation of Precipitation, 3.2 Characteristics of Precipitation, 3.3 Time Distribution, 3.4 Geographic Distribution, Measurement of Precipitation, 3.5 Measuring Rainfall, 3.6 Measuring Snowfa
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Chapter 4: Evaporation and Evapotranspiration
Citation: Pages 55-79 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.4) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Evaporation, 4.1 Evaporation from Water Surfaces, 4.2 Evaporation from Land Surfaces, Evapotranspiration, 4.3 Transpiration Ratio, 4.4 Evapotranspiration Definitions, Evapotranspiration Estimation Me
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Chapter 5: Infiltration and Runoff
Citation: Pages 81-113 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.5) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, 5.1 Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity--Darcy Equation, 5.2 Soil Factors, 5.3 Vegetation, 5.4 Soil Additives, 5.5 Other Factors, 5.6 Infiltration Curves, 5.7 Kostiakov Equation, 5.8 Horton Equation, 5.9 Phili
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Chapter 6: Open Channel Flow
Citation: Pages 115-143 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.6) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, States of Flow, 6.1 Reynolds Number, 6.2 Froude Number, Equations of Flow, 6.3 Continuity Equation, 6.4 The Bernoulli Equation, 6.5 Specific Energy, 6.6 Critical Depth, 6.7 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy
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Chapter 7: Soil Erosion by Water
Citation: Pages 145-170 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.7) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Erosion Processes, 7.1 Factors Affecting Erosion by Water, 7.2 Raindrop Erosion, 7.3 Sheet Erosion, 7.4 Interrill Erosion, 7.5 Rill Erosion, 7.6 Gully Erosion, 7.7 Stream Channel Erosion, 7.8 Sediment Transport, Soi
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Chapter 8: Terraces and Vegetated Waterways
Citation: Pages 171-198 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.8) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Terraces, Functions of Terraces, Terrace Classification, 8.1 Classification by Alignment, 8.2 Classification by Cross Section, 8.3 Classification by Grade, 8.4 Classification by Outlet, Planning the Terrace Syst
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Chapter 9: Water and Sediment Control Structures
Citation: Pages 199-244 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.9) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment
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Chapter 10: Channel Stabilization and Restoration
Citation: Pages 245-264 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.10) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment,Channel Stabilization and Restoration, 10.1 Watershed Classification, 10.2 Drainage Networks, 10.3 Channel Geometry, 10.4 Stream Classification, Narrow, Deep Streams (W/D<12), Wide, Shallow Streams (W/D>12), Br
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Chapter 11: Water Supply
Citation: Pages 265-286 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.11) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Water Supply, Reasons for Developing a Water Supply, 11.1 Irrigation, 11.2 Potable: Human or Livestock, 11.3 Recreation, 11.4 Wildlife Habitat, 11.5 Process Water (Manufacturing, Food Processing, Waste Handling), Ch
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Chapter 12: Wetlands
Citation: Pages 287-302 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.12) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: and section headings: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Wetlands, Wetland Definition, Wetland Classification, 12.1 Marine Wetlands, 12.2 Estuarine Wetlands, 12.3 Lacustrine Wetlands, 12.4 Riverine Wetlands, 12.5 Palustrine Wetlands, Wetland Function
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Chapter 13: Drainage Principles and Surface Drainage
Citation: Pages 303-320 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.13) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Drainage Principles and Surface Drainage, 13.1 Drainage Benefits, 13.2 Environmental Impacts of Drainage, Surface Drains, 13.3 Bedding, 13.4 Random Field Drains, 13.5 Parallel Field Drain System, Drainage Ditches, 1
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Chapter 14: Water Table Management
Citation: Pages 321-349 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.14) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Water Table Management, Description of Systems, 14.1 Conventional, 14.2 Controlled, 14.3 Subirrigation, System Layout, 14.4 Random, 14.5 Parallel, Depth and Spacing of Drains, 14.6 Steady-State Design, 14.7 T
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Chapter 15: Irrigation Principles
Citation: Pages 351-373 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.15) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Irrigation Principles, Plant Water Needs, 15.1 Crop Water Requirements, 15.2 Effective Rainfall, Soils and Salinity, 15.3 The Soil Water Reservoir, 15.4 Salinity, 15.5 Leaching, Irrigation Management, 15.6 Irr
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Chapter 16: Surface Irrigation
Citation: Pages 375-402 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.16) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Surface Irrigation, Application of Water, 16.1 Flooding, 16.2 Graded Border Strips, 16.3 Level Border Strips and Level Basins, 16.4 Furrows, Surface Irrigation and the Environment, Design and Evaluation, 16.5 S
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Chapter 17: Sprinkler Irrigation
Citation: Pages 403-435 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.17) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, environment, Sprinkler Irrigation, 17.1 Sprinkler Systems, 17.2 Evaporation and Wind Drift, 17.3 Distribution Pattern of Sprinklers, 17.4 System Requirements, Intermittent- or Set-Move Systems, 17.5 General Rules for Sprinkler S
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Chapter 18: Microirrigation
Citation: Pages 437-458 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.18) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, Water, Conservation, Environment, Microirrigation, 18.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Microirrigation, 18.2 Layout and Components of Microirrigation Systems, 18.2 Emitter Discharge, 18.4 Water Distribution from Emitters, 18.5 Microirrigation Syste
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Chapter 19: Pumps and Pumping
Citation: Pages 459-481 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.19) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, Water, Conservation, Environment,Pumps and Pumping, Types of Pumps, Centrifugal and Turbine Pumps, 19.1 Principles of Operation, 19.2 Classification, 19.3 Centrifugal-Type Impellers, 19.4 Performance Characteristics, Propeller Pumps, 19.5 Princ
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Chapter 20: Soil Erosion by Wind
Citation: Pages 483-499 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.20) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, Water, Conservation, Environment, Soil Erosion by Wind, 20.1 Air Quality, 20.2 Wind and Water Erosion Processes, 20.3 Types of Soil Movement, 20.4 Mechanics of Wind Erosion, 20.5 Estimating Wind Erosion, Control Practices, 20.6 Cul
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Appendix A: Conversion Constants
Citation: Pages 501-502 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.a) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, conversion constants.
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Appendix B: Manning Roughness Coefficient
Citation: Pages 503-504 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.b) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, Manning roughness coefficient
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Appendix C: Pipe and Conduit Flow
Citation: Pages 505-508 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.c) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, pipe and conduit flow.
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Appendix D: Pipe and Drain Tile Specifications
Citation: Pages 509-514 (doi: 10.13031/swce.2013.d) in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 7th Edition . Copyright 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich.
Authors: Rodney L. Huffman, Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot, Stephen R. Workman
Keywords: Soil, water, conservation, pipe and drain tile specifications.
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The creatures living in the soil are critical to soil health. They affect soil structure and therefore soil erosion and water availability. They can protect crops from pests and diseases. They are central to decomposition and nutrient cycling and therefore affect plant growth and amounts of pollutants in the environment. Finally, the soil is home to a large proportion of the world's genetic diversity.

Soil Biology Primer

The online Soil Biology Primer is an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity and air and water quality. The Primer includes chapters describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health and chapters about soil bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms.

The online Primer includes all of the text of the printed original, but not all of the images of the soil organisms. The full story of the soil food web is more easily understood with the help of the illustrations in the printed version.

Printed copies of the Soil Biology Primer may be purchased from the Soil and Water Conservation Society. Go to www.swcs.org

=> Copyright restrictions: Many photographs in the online Soil Biology Primer cannot be used on other We b sites or for other purposes without explicit permission from the copyright owners. P lease contact the Soil and Water Conservation Society at [email protected] for assistance with copyrighted (credited) images tagged throughout the online Primer.

=> The text, graphs, tables, non-credited photos, and graphics from USDA sources may be used freely however, please credit the Soil Biology Primer or this Web site.

Acknowledgements

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, with assistance from the Conservation Technology Information Center, provided leadership for this project. The Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Soil and Water Conservation Society thank many individuals, including the following, for their contributions.


Soil and Water Conservation: A Celebration of 75 Years

Soil and Water Conservation: A Celebration of 75 Years
Edited by Jorge A. Delgado, Clark J. Gantzer, and Gretchen F. Sassenrath
Full-color, 332 pages, 6" x 9" softbound
Free PDF download (see below)
2020
ISBN 978-0-9856923-2-2 (print)
ISBN 978-0-9856923-3-9 (electronic)

In response to the devastating effects of the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, Hugh Hammond Bennett and a small group of visionary conservationists banded together to form what would become the Soil and Water Conservation Society, a professional organization with the goal of advancing the science and art of sound land and water use. Now, 75 years later, the Society serves as a global leader in conservation research, education, policy, and practice.

Throughout this anniversary collection, researcher and practitioner experts celebrate progress of the past and explore the future of conservation at a critical time when all natural resources are threatened by the imminent impact of a changing climate. Collectively, the book serves as an introduction to the field, emphasizing the truly interdisciplinary nature of conservation work. Individually, however, chapters review developments and make recommendations for continued advancement in areas such as water quality and quantity, erosion, soil biology and health, carbon sequestration, and conservation modeling. Authors also address the evolution of key practices, including irrigation, nutrient management, drainage, cover crops, and precision conservation, and the cooperative efforts and policies that have facilitated their adoption.

Decades of published research and in-field experience are distilled into brief, informative chapters that provide perspective on the complex relationships between land managers and the environment in the face of current challenges, such as a changing climate, shrinking water resources, a growing global population, and shifting land uses. With 29 chapters and the contributions of 70 scientists and practitioners, this book serves as a landmark in natural resource conservation history.

To download individual chapters, please select the "Table of Contents" tab above and click chapter links.

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Watch the video: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (August 2022).